Systematic review



Systematic review.


We conducted searches in MEDLINE of literature published from 1950 through July 2008. Due to a limited number of studies using controls or comparators, we included observational

and rigorous qualitative studies. We systematically rated the quality of systematic reviews, cohort, and case-control design studies.


One systematic review, 93 observational studies, and one qualitative research study met inclusion criteria. The literature search yielded no published studies that assessed measures of pain intensity or pain-related functional interference among patients with cognitive deficits due to TBI, that compared patients with blast-related headache with patients with other selleck types of headache, or that assessed treatments for blast-related headache pain. Studies on the association between TBI severity and pain reported mixed findings. There was limited evidence that the following factors are associated with pain among TBI patients: severity, location,

and multiplicity of injuries; insomnia; fatigue; depression; and find more post-traumatic stress disorder.


Very little evidence is currently available to guide pain assessment and treatment approaches in patients with polytrauma. Further research employing systematic observational as well as controlled intervention designs is clearly indicated.”
“The performance of image analysis algorithms applied to magnetic resonance images is strongly influenced by the pulse sequences used to acquire the images. Algorithms are typically optimized for a targeted tissue contrast obtained from a particular implementation of a pulse sequence on a specific scanner. There are many practical situations, including multi-institution trials, rapid emergency scans, and scientific use of historical data, where the images are not acquired according to an optimal protocol or the desired tissue contrast Buparlisib mw is entirely missing. This paper introduces an image restoration technique that recovers

images with both the desired tissue contrast and a normalized intensity profile. This is done using patches in the acquired images and an atlas containing patches of the acquired and desired tissue contrasts. The method is an example-based approach relying on sparse reconstruction from image patches. Its performance in demonstrated using several examples, including image intensity normalization, missing tissue contrast recovery, automatic segmentation, and multimodal registration. These examples demonstrate potential practical uses and also illustrate limitations of our approach.”
“A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether it is best to repair or replace the aortic valve with a bioprosthesis in young patients with severe aortic regurgitation as the patients do not like to take warfarin for the rest of life.

The BTL homologue activity exhibited higher values, for both K(m)

The BTL homologue activity exhibited higher values, for both K(m) and V(max), than those found in the red cultivar. Moreover, two non-pigmented flavonoids, such as quercetin (a flavonol) and eriodictyol (a flavanone), inhibited the uptake of BSP in an uncompetitive manner. Such results strengthen the hypothesis that this BTL homologue acts as a carrier involved find more also in the membrane transport of colourless flavonoids and demonstrate the presence of such a carrier in different organs and tissues.”
“Lanthanum, as a fluorescent element, was encapsulated in complexing silica xerogel by using a one-pot procedure: silica formation from tetraethyl-orthosilicate and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane,

its chemical modification by reacting with 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and lanthanum complexation through the formed hydroxy-azomethine groups occurred

in the same reaction system. A polydimethylsiloxane-alpha,omega-diol with average number molecular weight of 20,000 was added in the sol-gel system to facilitate obtaining the flexible, free-standing films. Using different molar ratios among the reactants, a series of experiments was performed and the fluorescence of the Taselisib resulted compounds was evaluated, since the photophysical properties of the prepared compounds strongly depend on the composition. The acquired data have been used for fluorescence modeling based on soft computing instruments. Neural network models, individually or

aggregated in stacks, were developed to estimate the fluorescence intensity depending on the reaction mixture composition: tetraethyl-orthosilicate, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, lanthanum acetate, MCT inhibitor and polydimethylsiloxane-alpha,omega-diol amounts. A procedure based on genetic algorithms was used to design simple neural networks. Two main goals are pointed out in this article: developing a general methodology for modeling the complex processes with simple or stacked neural networks, and demonstrating the improvement of the modeling performance by combining different neural networks. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117:3160-3169, 2010″
“Study Design. A case-control study.

Objective. To evaluate the relationship between gene polymorphism in interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) and response to conservative treatment of lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP).

Summary of Background Data. There had been several studies on IL1RN polymorphism related with incidence of disc degeneration or back pain but, there had been no report on clinical features of lumbar HNP.

Methods. We analyzed the variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of IL1RN genes in 54 single level subligamentous extruded lumbar HNP patients and compared allele frequency and incidence of heterozygote with 227 healthy adult controls.

Materials and methods: The genotyping for P2X7 was carried out us

Materials and methods: The genotyping for P2X7 was carried out using PCR and RFLP analysis in 256 individuals, which included 156 active PTB patients and 100

age and sex, matched healthy volunteers with no clinical symptoms or family history of PTB as controls.

Results: A chi square test showed a significant difference between the PTB patient and controls for -762 C allele; p = 0.0051 (OR 1.6972, CI 95% 1.1839 to 2.4332) and 1729 T allele was found to be positively associated with the PTB; p < 0.0005 (OR-2.4623, CI 95% 1.6376 to 3.7022). 1513A/C polymorphism did not show any significant Screening Library order difference between the two groups.

Significance: The study revealed a significant association of P2X7-762C allele and P2X7 1729T allele receptor polymorphisms with PTB in Asian Indian population. The use of these alleles as biomarkers for identifying individuals at high risk of developing TB needs to be ascertained.”
“Objective: Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) reduces the incidence of neonatal early onset group B streptococcal infections. The present study investigated if an automated PCR-assay, used bedside by the labor ward personnel was manageable

and could decrease the use of IAP in a setting with a risk-based IAP strategy.

Methods: this website The study comprises two phases. Phase 1 was a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Women with selected risk-factors were allocated either R788 ic50 to PCR-IAP (prophylaxis given if positive or indeterminate) or IAP. A vaginal/rectal swab and superficial swabs from the neonate for conventional culture were also obtained.

Phase 2 was non-randomized, assessing an improved version of the assay.

Results: Phase 1 included 112 women in the PCR-IAP group and 117 in the IAP group. Excluding indeterminate results, the assay showed a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 90%. In 44 % of the PCR assays the result was indeterminate. The use of IAP was lower in the PCR group (53 versus 92%). Phase 2 included 94 women. The proportion of indeterminate results was reduced (15%). The GBS colonization rate was 31%.

Conclusion: The PCR assay, in the hands of labor ward personnel, can be useful for selection of women to which IAP should be offered.”
“Cryptococcus spp. are common causes of mycoses in immunocompromised patients. To determine the drug susceptibilities of clinical Cryptococcus spp. isolates, the characteristics of 61 clinical Cryptococcus spp. complex isolates and their antifungal susceptibilities were investigated, including 52 C. neoformans and 9 C. gattii isolates collected at Shanghai between 1993 and 2009. Antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and flucytosine were determined by the microdilution method M27-A2 and the ATB FUNGUS 3 kit. The 90% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) and susceptibility ranges were as follows: 1 (0.

21, P = 0 060) and plant-based (alpha-linolenic acid) (beta = -0

21, P = 0.060) and plant-based (alpha-linolenic acid) (beta = -0.33, P = 0.024) fatty acids remained associated with lower ventricular ectopy after cardiovascular comorbidities were controlled for.

Conclusion: These findings extend existing evidence linking n-3 fatty acid consumption to a reduced risk AZD6244 purchase of ventricular arrhythmias by showing that a greater intake of n-3 fatty acids may be associated with low ventricular ectopy among AMI patients. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1315-20.”
“Although lichen planus is one of the most common dermatological entities, very few reviews on its management exist in the literature.

Standard therapeutic approaches include various topical treatments (including topical corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, vitamin D analogs) and phototherapy modalities, as well as systemic corticosteroids and systemic retinoids. While localized skin lesions are easily managed with standard modalities, generalized forms and in particular involvement of hair follicles, nails and mucosa, as well as eyes are often challenging. This review proposes an evidence-based and differential therapeutic regime, taking into account many new emerging systemic therapies to help

clinicians optimize treatment PF-573228 datasheet according to the type, extent and severity of the disease. An individual therapeutic ladder has been developed for each location, starting with standard modalities and ranking alternative systemic treatments (mainly methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine, as well as cyclosporine, azathioprine

Cilengitide ic50 and mycophenolate mofetil) according to efficacy, evidence level and side-effect profile.”
“Poly(ethylene-2,6-naphthalate) (PEN) nanofiber was prepared by a carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser supersonic drawing. The CO, laser supersonic drawing was carried out by irradiating the laser to the as-spun) PEN fiber in a low-temperature supersonic jet. The supersonic jet was generated by blowing off air into a vacuum chamber from a fiber supplying orifice. The flow velocity from the orifice can be estimated by applying Graham’s theorem from the pressure difference between the atmospheric pressure and the pressure of the vacuum chamber. The fastest flow velocity estimated was 396 m s(-1) (Mach 1.15) at a chamber pressure of 6 KPa. The nanofiber obtained at Mach 1.15 was the oriented nanofibers with an average diameter of 0.259 mu m, and its draw ratio estimated from the diameters before and after the drawing reached 430,822 times. The CO(2) laser supersonic drawing is a new method to make nanofiber without using any solvent or removing the second component. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116: 1913-1919, 2010″
“The polycrystalline samples of ferrimagnetic FeCr2-xMxS4 (M=In,Al; x=0.1, 0.3) have been studied with x-ray diffraction, magnetization, and Mossbauer spectroscopy measurements. The crystal structure was found to be cubic spinel with Fd-3m space group.

ConclusionAbdominal hysteropexy operation using rectus fascia str

ConclusionAbdominal hysteropexy operation using rectus fascia strips provides a safe and alternative approach for the management of uterine prolapse in young women who desire to preserve their uterus. But further analysis is needed to confirm our results.”
“Culture conversion is an interim monitoring tool for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We evaluated the time to and predictors of culture conversion in pulmonary MDR-TB patients enrolled in the community-based MDR-TB management program at the Indus Hospital in

Karachi, Pakistan. Despite strict daily directly observed therapy, monthly food incentives and patient counseling, the median C188-9 time to culture conversion SUMMARY was 196 days (range 32-471). The cumulative probabilities of culture conversion by 2, 4, 6 and 12 months were respectively 6%, 33%, 47%, and 73%. Smoking, high SB525334 ic50 smear grade at baseline and previous use of second-line drugs delayed culture conversion.”
“Background: This pilot Study examined the feasibility of monitoring changes in body weight and body-fat percentage (BF%) using commercially available digital weight scale incorporating bioelectrical impedance analyzer (HBF-352-W,

Omron Healthcare Co, Kyoto, Japan) to estimate changes in body fluid status in definite heart failure (HF) patients during follow-up.

Methods and Results: A total of 64 patients completed a prospective study (June 2003-December 2006). During the Study period, 38 patients developed worsening HF over a mean duration of 34 3 days from the most recent visit with clinical stability to the time of worsening HF status. Of these, 32 patients (84%) showed an increase in body weight concurrent with a decrease in BF% during deterioration. During recovery (n = 35), all BGJ398 but 1 patient showed a decrease in body weight concurrent with an increase in BF%. Combined monitoring of both body weight and BF% provides quite excellent predictive accuracy

(70%, 95% CI 59-81%) for identifying worsening HF status when compared with a sole body weight monitoring (56%, 95% CI 44-68%]) (cutoff point of body weight gain >= 1.5 kg). Conclusions

: New monitoring method reported here is an effective tool for specifically detecting fluid weight gain at deterioration in definite HF patients. (J Cardiac Fail 2009;15:410-418)”
“Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is uncommon as compared to cerebral stroke. Moreover, SCI during pregnancy is rare. Here, we report a case of SCI in diabetic pregnancy, properly diagnosed, promptly treated, and a good prognosis achieved. A 38-year-old, pregnant woman, para 1, with type 1 diabetes mellitus on insulin since 14 years of age, was admitted to our hospital for paresthesia and numbness in the lower left side of the body, with movement disturbances. On the basis of the temporal profile of the onset and the multiple resonance imaging scans, SCI was diagnosed.

Based on those findings, read;rich clinical correlation, a prelim

Based on those findings, read;rich clinical correlation, a preliminary diagnosis of chloroma wars made and confirmed by ancillary studies.


This rare manifestation should alert a clinician to include, CML is chronic phase in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with multiple nonpigmented, Go 6983 purchase nonpruritic skin nodules. FNA with ancillary, studies can provide a rapid diagnosis. (Acta Cytol 2009;53:235-238)”
“BACKGROUND: We recently showed in a pig model of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) that lung edema correlates with glucose consumption. We investigated whether salbutamol, a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist known to upregulate fluid transport in the lung, modulates glucose

concentration in the perfusate during EVLP.

METHODS: Lungs from domestic pigs underwent normothermic EVLP. At the end of controlled reperfusion, lungs were ventilated and perfused for 60 minutes, then randomized to salbutamol (beta-Agonist) infusion or placebo (Control) for 180 minutes. Functional parameters were assessed.

RESULTS: In the beta-Agonist group, glucose concentration decreased over time more than corresponding Control values (analysis of variance [ANOVA], p = 0.05). Mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) Elafibranor was 16 +/- 1 mm Hg in the beta-Agonist group vs 21 +/- 1 mm Hg in the Controls (ANOVA p < 0.05). Baseline mPAP was correlated with the

drop of mPAP after the p-agonist infusion (R-2 = 0.856, p < 0.05). Dynamic compliance dropped from 51 10 to 31 6 ml/cm 1420 in the P-Aeonist group and from 60 +/- 4 to 21 +/- 3 ml/cm H2O in the Control group (ANOVA, p < 0.05 beta-agonist vs Control). The A partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen was 418 +/- 15 and 393 +/- 12 mm Hg in the P-Agonist and Control groups, respectively (t-test p = 0.106).

CONCLUSIONS: Glucose concentration in the perfusate was affected by salbutamol. Salbutamol was associated with lower pulmonary pressures and better lung mechanics. These data suggest a possible role for

salbutamol as a pharmacologic adjunct during EVLP before transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:524-30 (C) 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design. In vitro cadaveric study of cervical R788 price spinal cord intramedullary pressure (IMP) in kyphotic deformity.

Objective. To define the relationship between cervical spinal kyphotic deformity and spinal cord IMP.

Summary of Background Data. Previous studies of asymptomatic volunteers have revealed that the greatest variation in regional sagittal neutral upright spinal alignment occurs in the cervical spine with “”normal”" alignment ranging up to +15 to +20 degrees kyphosis. We sought to determine whether IMP changes in response to increasing cervical kyphosis.

Methods. In eight fresh-frozen cadavers, a progressive kyphotic deformity was created.

Adverse events for adults on ketamine are most commonly somnolenc

Adverse events for adults on ketamine are most commonly somnolence, feelings of insobriety, nausea/vomiting, hallucinations, depersonalization/derealization, and drowsiness. GSK461364 ic50 However,

when ketamine is combined with benzodiazepines, feelings of insobriety, hallucinations, and depersonalization/derealization are not reported. Children on ketamine have had few reported adverse effects, which include sedation, anorexia, urinary retention, and myoclonic movements. Recommended ketamine infusion dosages are from 0.05 to 0.5mg/kg/h (intravenous or subcutaneous). Recommended oral dosages of ketamine are 0.2-0.5mg/kg/dose two to three times daily with a maximum of 50mg/dose three times daily.

ConclusionsDespite limitations LY294002 in the breadth and depth of data available, there is evidence that ketamine may be a viable option for treatment-refractory cancer pain.”

(X= C, TiO2, Ta2O5) nanocomposite films were deposited on MgO/CrRu/glass substrates at 350 degrees C by magnetron cosputtering. The comparison investigations on the magnetic properties and microstructure of FePt-X films with various dopants were conducted. All FePt-X films showed (001) preferred orientation and oxide dopants promoted the formation of magnetically soft fcc FePt phase. With 15 vol % C doping, FePt-C film with columnar grains of 7.5 nm was obtained and the out-of-plane coercivity measured at room temperature was as high as 14.4 kOe. The increase in carbon volume fraction to 20% caused the formation of

two-layer structure, whereas for the 20 vol % TiO2 and Ta2O5 doping, the columnar structure of the FePt films remained and the corresponding Tubastatin A purchase grain sizes were 5 and 10 nm, respectively. Ta2O5 doping showed better grain isolation than the others. The out-of-plane coercivities of FePt-TiO2 and FePt-Ta2O5 films were 7.5 and 8.8 kOe, respectively. (c) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3057874]“
“Background: The benefits of exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are due to a combination of cardiac and peripheral adaptations. Separating these 2 components is normally impossible, except for patients implanted with total artificial heart (TAR), where cardiac adaptation cannot occur.

Methods and Results: We report the case of a patient implanted with a CardioWest-TAH who underwent a comprehensive strength and endurance training program and was evaluated by repeated peak cardiopulmonary exercise tests. The patient experienced a 24% increase of peak oxygen consumption and an improvement in recovery kinetics during the training period of 29 months.

Conclusion: This unique situation of a patient with a TAR, and therefore a fixed peak cardiac output, allows us to isolate training-induced changes in the periphery, that suggest greater oxygen extraction and more efficient metabolic gas kinetics during the exercise and recovery phases.

The as-implanted Co:ZnO

The as-implanted Co:ZnO check details crystal shows a homogeneous distribution of Co in the near surface region of the crystal. Upon annealing, clear evidence of

secondary phases is found. At the highest annealing temperature (800 degrees C) a ferromagnetic behavior is observed at room temperature with a coercive field of 120 Oe assigned mainly to metallic fcc Co nano-crystallites. We find that for the annealed samples, the temperature dependent magnetization cannot be explained within a model containing only a paramagnetic contribution due to well dispersed Co ions and a ferromagnetic contribution due to Co nano-crystallites, at least one more ferromagnetic contribution is needed for a consistent explanation of the experimental results. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3559263]“
“In strawberry, the putative participation of aquaporins should

be considered during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the availability of different firmness cultivars in this non-climacteric fruit is a very useful tool to determine their involvement in softening. In a previous work, the cloning of a strawberry fruit-specific AZD9291 purchase aquaporin, FaPIP1;1, which showed an expression profile associated with fruit ripening was reported. Here, FaPIP2;1, an aquaporin subtype of PIP2 was cloned and its functional characterization in Xenopus oocytes determined. The FaPIP2;1 gene encodes a water channel with high water permeability (P(f)) that is regulated by cytosolic pH. Interestingly, the co-expression of both FaPIP subtypes resulted in an enhancement of water permeability, showing P(f) values that exceeds their individual contribution. The expression pattern of both aquaporin subtypes in two cultivars with contrasting fruit firmness showed that the firmer cultivar (Camarosa) has a higher accumulation of FaPIP1 and FaPIP2 mRNAs during fruit ripening when compared with the softer cultivar (Toyonoka). In conclusion, not only FaPIP aquaporins showed an expression pattern associated with fruit firmness but it was also shown that the enhancement of water transfer through the plasma membrane is coupled to the presence/absence

of the co-expression buy SBE-β-CD of both subtypes.”
“Background: Surgeons and nurses are exposed to orthostatic stress.

Aims: To assess the lifetime incidence of syncopal and presyncopal events during surgery in operation room staff and reveal the predicting factors.

Methods and Results: The study included 317 subjects (161 F, 156 M) aged 43.9 +/- 9.6; 216 surgeons and 101 instrumenters. The study included filling of an anonymous questionnaire on the syncope and presyncope history.

Results: At least one syncopal event during operation was reported by 4.7% and presyncope by 14.8% of the studied population. All but one subject reported prodromal symptoms before syncope. In the medical history, syncope outside the operating room was reported by 11% of the studied group.


Future Selleck KPT-8602 studies exploring cultural differences and family dynamics may provide targeted recruitment strategies for AA and Caucasian living kidney donors. Living unrelated kidney transplantation appears to be a potential growth area for living kidney donation in AA.”
“The detrimental effects of structural defects,

micro-twins (MTs) and threading dislocations (TDs), on electron mobility have been investigated for InSb quantum wells (QWs) at room temperature (RT). The constants that are necessary to calculate the electron-mobility limits of these defects were determined by a least-squares-based method that has an advantage of clear representation of the analytical results in a two-dimensional space. Based on a mathematical consideration, a general method of converting electron-mobility limits into percentage impacts upon the total electron mobility was developed. Percentage-mobility-impact

analyses showed that, when InSb QWs grown on on-axis (001) GaAs substrates have a TD density Proteasome inhibitor of 8.7 x 10(8) – 3.2 x 10(9)/cm(2), 21-14 and 18-45% of electron-mobility degradation are attributed to MTs and TDs, respectively, at RT. The use of 2 degrees off-axis (001) GaAs substrates reduces MT densities in InSb QWs, resulting in a suppression of the MT mobility impact to 3-2% and a complementary slight increase of the TD mobility impact to 22-51% in the same TD density range. This considerable TD mobility limit indicates that it should be possible to improve RT electron mobility in InSb QWs grown on 2 degrees off-axis (001) GaAs substrates, by means of reducing TD density further (< 8.7 x 10(8)/cm(2)). Although the mobility impacts due to phonons in InSb QW grown on-axis and 2 degrees off-axis (001) GaAs substrates are 54-36 and 67-42%, respectively, phonon scattering is not a single dominant scattering factor: MTs and TDs have also substantial negative impacts upon RT electron mobilities

in InSb QWs. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3563587]“
“Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) results from loss-of-function mutations in PKD1 or PKD2. The products of these genes, the polycystins PC-1 and PC-2, form a transmembrane channel that is necessary for flow sensing by renal cilia. In C. elegans, the polycystin orthologs LOV-1 and PKD-2 function find more in sensory neurons that mediate male mating behavior. Here, we report that the novel single-pass membrane protein CWP-5 is necessary for polycystin signaling during the response step of mating behavior. As with the polycystins, CWP-5 localizes to neuronal cilia; this localization requires LOV-1. The response defect of cwp-5 mutants does not appear to result from disruption of ciliogenesis or polycystin localization. Instead, genetic and behavioral analyses indicate that CWP-5 represses a previously undescribed antagonistic effect of the polycystins on sensory function.

We find a non-neutral regime where, for any given population size

We find a non-neutral regime where, for any given population size, there is an optimal mutation GNS-1480 bias that maximizes fitness. Interestingly, this optimal GC usage is small for small populations, large for intermediate populations and around 50% for large populations. This result is robust with respect to the definition of the fitness function and to the protein structures studied. Our model suggests that small populations evolving with small GC usage eventually accumulate a significant selective advantage over populations evolving without this bias.

This provides a possible explanation to the observation that most species adopting obligatory intracellular lifestyles with a consequent reduction of effective population size shifted their mutation spectrum towards AT. The model also predicts that large GC usage is optimal for intermediate population size. To test these predictions we estimated the AZD2014 effective population sizes of bacterial species using the optimal codon usage coefficients

computed by dos Reis et al. and the synonymous to non-synonymous substitution ratio computed by Daubin and Moran. We found that the population sizes estimated in these ways are significantly smaller for species with small and large GC usage compared to species with no bias, which supports our prediction.”
“Background: The pathogenicity of Plasmodium falciparum is in part due to the ability of the parasitized red blood cell (pRBC) to adhere to intra- vascular host cell receptors and serum-proteins. Binding of the pRBC is mediated by Plasmodium Proteasome 抑制剂 falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), a large multi-variant molecule encoded by a

family of approximate to 60 var genes.

Methods: The study of var gene transcription in the parasite clone FCR3S1.2 was performed by semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The expression of the major PfEMP1 in FCR3S1.2 pRBC was analysed with polyclonal sera in rosette disruption assays and immunofluorecence.

Results: Transcripts from var1 (FCR3S1.2(var1); IT4var21) and other var genes were detected by semi-quantitative PCR but results from qPCR showed that one var gene transcript dominated over the others (FCR3S1.2var2; IT4var60). Antibodies raised in rats to the recombinant NTS-DBL1a of var2 produced in E. coli completely and dosedependently disrupted rosettes (approximate to 95% at a dilution of 1/5). The sera reacted with the Maurer’s clefts in trophozoite stages (IFA) and to the infected erythrocyte surface (FACS) indicating that FCR3S1.2var2 encodes the dominant PfEMP1 expressed in this parasite.

Conclusion: The major transcript in the rosetting model parasite FCR3S1.2 is FCR3S1.2var2 (IT4var60). The results suggest that this gene encodes the PfEMP1-species responsible for the rosetting phenotype of this parasite. The activity of previously raised antibodies to the NTS-DBL1a of FCR3S1.