The second is the one that gives greater strength to


The second is the one that gives greater strength to

the concept. In terrestrial ecosystems, the EC concept has been criticized because of the difficulty to test connectivity between different areas (Van der Windt and Swart, 2008). However, in marine ecosystems connectivity is a ERK inhibitor key factor, especially for benthic organisms (Carr et al., 2003). In fact, there are conspicuous physical drivers that encourage connectivity, such as ocean currents (Brock et al., 2012). In reef systems, hydrologic connectivity between their linked environments (mangroves and sea grasses) is critical to complete biological cycles. RSGoM can be seen in the perspective of EC complementing this concept with the criteria for the establishment of Marine Protected Areas Networks (MPAN). These MPAN arise from the need PARP inhibitor to connect not only interrelated environments, but to unite under common goals the different interests of the social sectors involved in its use and management (Roberts et al., 2003). The MPAN are appropriate to address space issues of connectivity (e.g. connect sites crucial to certain life stages of key species) and habitat heterogeneity and spatial arrangement and composition of the constituent habitats, all of which contribute to the ecosystem resilience. Roberts et al. (2003) proposed several criteria for the selection

of MPAN, but the most important are: 1) “biogeographic representation” and 2) “Representation and habitat heterogeneity”, because both seek to capture the full spectrum of diversity present in an MPAN. The first one refers to the representativeness of Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) the network of areas to include all biogeographical regions in protected areas of the MPAN, including the transition zones. The second seeks to protect the full range of habitats present within a biogeographic region. Our proposal is the implementation of an MPAN including the reef systems off Veracruz State coast. This MPAN must include the theoretical/best knowledge in order to have representation of most habitats

and ensure ecological connectivity. Bellow we describe how these criteria are applied to the RSGoM. Regardless of their hierarchical level, a regional unit is characterized by the presence of exclusive groups, whose limits are defined by the overlap of the boundary lines of such groups. However, not all species share the same geographic distribution, making it difficult to place them in a rigid biogeographic regionalization (Zunino and Zullini, 2004). This is the case of the RSGoM. The RSGoM are located at Eastern Continental Shelf of Mexico, which is within the Wider Caribbean biogeographic province (Horta-Puga et al., 2007). This Biogeographic province is a vast region stretching from the South American Caribbean to the Gulf of Mexico.

Plasticizing agents commonly used for thermoplastic starch produc

Plasticizing agents commonly used for thermoplastic starch production include water and glycerol (Alves et al., 2007, Famá et al., 2006,

Famá et al., 2007, Jangehud and Chinnan, 1999, Mali et al., 2006 and Parra et al., 2004), polyethylene glycol (Parra et al., 2004) and other polyols, such as sorbitol, mannitol and sugars (Kechichian et al., 2010, Talja et al., 2008 and Veiga-Santos et al., 2008). Some authors consider that the glycerol, a polyalcohol found naturally in a combined form as glycerides in animal and vegetable Sotrastaurin research buy fats and oils, is the best plasticizer for water soluble polymers (Bertuzzi et al., 2007, Jangehud and Chinnan, 1999 and Müller et al., 2008). The hydroxyl groups present in glycerol are responsible for inter and intramolecular Selleck Vemurafenib interactions (hydrogen bonds) in polymeric chains, providing films with a more flexible structure and adjusting them to the packaging production process (Souza et al., 2010). Sucrose, which is a non-toxic, edible and low cost biodegradable raw material, has shown a higher plasticizing efficiency when compared

to sorbitol and glycerol. However, evidence of sucrose crystallization during storage was reported. Some authors have demonstrated the possibility of substituting sucrose by inverted sugar that has a lower tendency to crystallize, increasing film-forming suspension viscosity, making it more difficult for crystals to form (Veiga-Santos et al., 2008). In this way, the association of cassava starch with plasticizers as glycerol, sucrose, and inverted sugar can promote alterations in the films, justifying the study of these additives

to develop a potential and ecological alternative to the synthetic packaging of several food products (Parra et al., 2004). To overcome high permeability caused by the plasticizer, other additives are used. In this area, the production of bionanocomposites has proven to be a promising option, since polymer composites are increasingly gaining importance as substitute Rolziracetam materials due to their superior tensile properties, making them especially suited for transportation and packaging applications. Mineral clays are technologically important and are mainly composed of hydrated aluminosilicate with neutral or negative charged layers (Wilhelm et al., 2003). Clay is a potential filler; itself a naturally abundant mineral that is toxin-free and can be used as one of the components for food, medical, cosmetic and healthcare products (Chen & Evans, 2005). Moreover, clay is environmentally friendly and inexpensive. Clay/starch composites have been the most frequently studied, demonstrating a potential for improvement of tensile strength, Young’s modulus, water resistance and decrease of the water vapor permeability of starches from many different sources (Avella et al., 2005, Chiou et al., 2007, Cyras et al., 2008, Kampeerapappun et al., 2007, McGlashan and Halley, 2003 and Tang et al., 2008).

, 1996) Particle suspensions were aliquoted into sterile microce

, 1996). Particle suspensions were aliquoted into sterile microcentrifuge tubes with o-ring sealed screw-caps, capped and heated to 56 °C for 30 min. Stock suspensions were then stored at −80 °C until use. Stocks of Zymosan A (Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell fragments, 10 mg/ml), Salmonella typhimurium bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 500 μg/ml) and mouse recombinant interferon gamma (IFN-γ, 50,000 IU/ml) were prepared in sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), aliquoted into sterile, o-ring seal microcentrifuge tubes, and frozen at −80 °C. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) was resuspended

in absolute ethanol to 2 mM and stored at −80 °C. AZD0530 order Luminol stocks of 770 mM were prepared in dimethyl sulfoxide and stored at −20 °C. All reagents were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Pathogen-free, male Fischer 344 rats (150–250 g; Charles River, St. Constant, Québec, Canada) were housed in individual cages on woodchip bedding within high-efficiency particulate air barrier tents and were provided food and water ad libitum. The animal

treatment protocol was reviewed and approved by the Animal Care Committee of Health Canada. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) as outlined previously ( Nadeau et al., 1996). Briefly, rats were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (65 mg/kg ip) and killed by exsanguination of the abdominal aorta. Following cannulation of the trachea and deflation C59 purchase of the lungs by transection of the diaphragm, warm (37 °C) PBS was instilled into the lungs (30 ml/kg body weight). After 5 min, the thoracic cage was gently massaged Selleck Enzalutamide and the PBS drawn back out of the lungs. Successive lavages were carried out until a total volume of 40 ml of lavage fluid was collected in a centrifuge tube kept on ice. High enrichment of BAL fluid with alveolar macrophages was confirmed by light microscopy, as previously reported ( Nadeau et al., 1996). Cells were counted

(Coulter Multisizer, Burlington, ON, Canada), centrifuged at 500g for 10 min at 4 °C, and resuspended at a final concentration of 1.2 × 106 cells/ml in cold M199 culture medium (pH 7.2) containing 25 mM sodium bicarbonate, 25 mM HEPES, 2 mM l-glutamine, 50 IU/ml penicillin, and 50 μg/ml streptomycin. All cell culture reagents were from Sigma–Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Cell culture 96-well plates (opaque, Microlite 1 luminescence strip microplates, Dynatech Laboratories, Chantily, VA, USA) were pre-loaded with 50 μl of M199 containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 0.6 mM luminol (3-aminophthalhydrazide). Macrophages were added at a seeding density of 60,000 cells per well (180,000/cm2) in 50 μl of serum-free M199 medium. The final volume in all wells was 100 μL (5% FBS, 300 μM luminol). Cells were incubated at 37 °C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2/95% air, and 100% relative humidity for 2 h in order to allow cell attachment.

1%) with TIA Concerning the site of stenosis, 50 (52 6%) were lo

1%) with TIA. Concerning the site of stenosis, 50 (52.6%) were located in the anterior circulation [MCA 46 (48.4%), ACA 4 (4.2%)], 45 (47.4%) in the posterior circulation [PCA 28 (29.5%), BA 11 (11.6%), VA 6 (6.5%)] (Table 2); 46 (54.8%) on the right

hemisphere, 38 (45.2%) on the left one. In this university hospital-based study among Caucasian patients with acute Thiazovivin clinical trial cerebral ischemia, ultrasound revealed intracranial stenosis in 20.2% of patients, a higher prevalence than expected on the basis of previous reports [2]. Furthermore, more than one third of these patients were found to harbor at least two intracranial stenoses, suggesting the clinical importance of this condition in white Italian patients with TIA or acute ischemic stroke. In our opinion, ICAD might be relatively neglected in Caucasian patients, because the main focus is maintained on a more accessible disorder, such as extracranial carotid artery occlusive disease [7] and

in many cases the diagnosis is not actively sought, because of the “a priori” assumption that the condition is relatively rare. Moreover, compared to cervical artery stenosis, atherosclerotic lesions of intracranial vessels cannot be directly visualized by ultrasound and therefore it is not possible to KU-60019 supplier collect information on the characteristics of the plaque. They are detected at a late stage, when they alter blood flow and are more susceptible to embolize. In our population, ICAD was more frequent in males, who were also younger than females, confirming previous data on atherosclerotic disease [8]. The most relevant risk factor for ICAD in our study resulted to be hypertension, followed by hypercholesterolemia; previous reports have shown similar results and aggressive treatment of these risk factors has been shown to reduce the recurrence of ischemic stroke in patients with intracranial stenosis [9] and [10]. Cobimetinib in vivo Our data do not show a significant difference in the location of stenosis (anterior circulation compared to posterior circulation) suggesting that intracranial atherosclerotic disease is part of a widespread pathology, so that an accurate examination of

the entire Circle of Willis is advisable in all patients with stroke or TIA, considering also the high risk of stroke recurrence in ICAD patients. In conclusion, according to this study ICAD must enter into the differential diagnosis of Caucasians patients with acute cerebral ischemia, because it is a more frequent cause of stroke than previously reported. “
“Cardioembolic stroke accounts for about one third of all strokes. In some registries, percentages even reach 40%. The diagnosis of cardioembolic stroke requires that alternative stroke etiologies have been ruled out comprehensively. Diagnosis of cardiac embolism thus usually requires the presence of a structural abnormality of the heart or the diagnosis of rhythm disturbances with high embolic risk such as atrial fibrillation (AF) [1].

, 2008) and induce an increased immune response at a molecular le

, 2008) and induce an increased immune response at a molecular level. We need to clarify whether further kinds of physical effects may be observed, especially when transferred to organisms other than mussels. As BI 2536 price far as the microplastics’ size is concerned, filter feeders and other organisms near the bottom of the marine food chain may be primarily affected (Thompson et al., 2004 and Moore, 2008). This still needs to be validated, also by clarifying which levels of the food chain are most affected. Investigations on marine mammals also showed that plastic particles are transferred along the food chain by feeding on plastic-contaminated fish (Eriksson

and Burton, 2003). It will be essential to elucidate the underlying mechanisms

in order to find out whether enrichment or depletion occurs within the food chain and if microplastics can finally be found in marine top predators and in humans. Moreover, microplastics may serve as transport vectors for invasive micro-organisms to remote regions (Barnes, 2002 and Gregory, 2009). However, it is still unknown to which extent they contribute to changes in species assemblages and how they influence endemic species and ecosystems. Since plastics contain additives like plasticizers or organic pollutants, which have sorbed out of the marine environment into the plastic matrix (Carpenter et al., 1972 and Hale from et al., 2010), physical find protocol effects may be enhanced by chemical and toxic effects. In seabirds a positive relationship between pollutant concentration and plastic burden has already been observed (Ryan et al., 1988). First investigations, especially on plastics as passive samplers, reveal that equilibrium sorption of organic pollutants is about two orders of magnitude higher than to natural sediments and soils (Mato et al., 2001). Again, detailed knowledge on mechanisms is missing. It is neither investigated how pollutants sorb onto or into microplastics in comparison to natural particles

like suspended matter, detritus or phytoplankton, nor can we describe how material properties, additives or weathering influence the sorption behaviour. In order to decide whether uptake of microplastics and associated pollutants increase bioaccumulation of the pollutants in marine organisms, mechanisms like substance leaching out of the plastic matrix need to be quantified. Since plastic particles may settle from the water body to the sediment it also has to be clarified whether sediment represents a sink and, thus, a long-term source for microplastics and associated chemicals. Accumulation of larger plastic has been observed in ocean gyres (Moore et al., 2001), on beaches, and in sediments worldwide (Barnes et al., 2009).


α is the thermal expansion coefficient, taken to be


α is the thermal expansion coefficient, taken to be 3.2 × 10− 4 °C− 1 and cp = 3.98 J g− 1 °C− 1 (salinity ≈ 39.5‰ and temperature 28.5°C); Various studies relating to water column conditions have been carried out in different areas. Holloway (1980) considers thermal stratification in a water body subjected to atmospheric heating and wind-induced vertical mixing. Simpson et al. (1990) discuss how buoyancy input as fresh water exerts a stratifying influence in estuaries and adjacent coastal waters. Liu (2007) found that, in the Bohai Sea, stratification comes into existence in April, peaks in July and decays towards October. Buranapratheprat et al. (2008) discuss the water column conditions

in the upper click here Gulf of Thailand based on surface heat flux, river discharge, tidal and wind mixing. They show that stratification develops in May because of surface heating and is dominant in October due to the large river discharge. Monthly variations Selleckchem SB203580 of the surface heat fluxes are taken from Ahmad et al. (1989) and the results are reproduced in Figure 2 along with the net surface heat flux. Wind speed data (1990–2000) for Jeddah airport are provided by PME (Presidency of Meteorology and Environment) of Saudi Arabia. The monthly averages of wind speed are plotted in Figure 3a. The hydrographic data and the tidal current speeds are from Ahmad et al. (1997). The measured tidal current velocities are also plotted in Figure 3b and the temperature and salinity for the months of April and September 1997 for three stations are shown in Figure 4. The tidal current velocity in the main body of the Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase lagoon

varied from about 0.05 m s− 1 to about 0.2 m s− 1 depending on the spring-neap cycle and the seasonal variations of the mean sea level in the Red Sea. The tidal currents at the inlet were faster owing to the narrowness of the entrance. When the net heat at the air-sea interface Q   < 0, from November to March ( Figure 2), then the potential energy due to the surface heat flux will not contribute to stratification and the water column is mixed. When the heat balance Q   > 0, surface heating will contribute to stratification and tidal and wind mixing will be opposed, so stratification will depend on their net contribution. The calculations are therefore made for April to October only. The net surface heat flux at the air-sea interface from April to October, as well as the tidal current velocities and the wind speeds for this period are listed in Table 1. Based on this data dvdt is computed for surface heat flux, tidal and wind mixing terms. The values are given in Table 2 along with the net changes in potential energy. From the hydrographic data at three stations in the Rabigh Lagoon (Ahmad et al.

Moreover, as one participant said referring to conversations that

Moreover, as one participant said referring to conversations that he had had with people from communities

near several different NMPs: “Everywhere it is the same. The feeling is not good. Management shortcomings were largely seen to extend from these issues with governance. There had never been programs of education or outreach in any of the communities that we visited. Despite this, there was a slightly positive perception (+0.1) that the NMP would increase knowledge of nature and support for conservation (Fig. 3). Yet communities lacked knowledge of rules and regulations, the locations of boundaries, or even the existence of a park because there was little communication emerging from management offices. Access to park management plans was denied to our research team in all but one of four park offices that we visited Trametinib in vivo without a letter from the DNP head office. If it occurred,

enforcement of rules and regulations was seen to be inconsistent – due to minimal and seasonal monitoring find protocol – and inequitable – favoring outside business and landowners and commercial fishers over local people. Participants often discussed how there were no mechanisms for participation in creation or management, for consideration of local values and development considerations, for transparency and accountability, for resolving conflicts, or for integrating local and traditional knowledge into management. The one exception was on Koh Chang, where locals had been consulted extensively during the creation of Mu Koh Ranong. Still it was felt by many participants that park managers did not understand local communities in large part because the “superintendent and assistant superintendent never come out into the park”. This paper makes a contribution to the

literature on the impacts of conservation and MPAs in a particular context. This study suggests that local perceptions of NMPs, under the jurisdiction of the DNP, are fairly negative in coastal communities in Thailand. Perceived impacts of NMPs on livelihood strategies and outcomes are mixed. Ureohydrolase Fishing and harvesting livelihoods are generally seen to be negatively impacted by NMPs except in cases where rules were misunderstood or not applied. Participants felt there were no impacts or negative impacts for plantation owners or laborers. NMPs were seen to lead to marginal employment or monetary benefits from tourism for most except for a select elite who would gain significantly. There was perceived to be little potential for benefit from employment in NMP management. Negative impacts were seen to stem from reduced access to or lack of development of social, cultural, human, political, natural, physical, and financial assets. Conservation outcomes were perceived to be mostly positive for terrestrial environments and quite mixed for marine environments. Opinions of DNP governance and management were quite negative.

The storage of the system trajectory in the indirect dimension of

The storage of the system trajectory in the indirect dimension of the 2D NMR simulation shown in Fig. 1 requires 512 × 848,530 complex doubles (6.96 GB) of memory. It is clear that 3D NMR Doramapimod concentration simulations would put some strain on modern computing facilities. This would have been a difficult problem, were it not for a peculiar property of propagator semigroups – simulations can be partially run backwards, even in the presence of relaxation. The general algebraic summary is given below and a special

case of the HNCO pulse sequence is illustrated in Fig. 3. The free induction decay coming out of a 3D NMR experiment is a function of three evolution times t  1, t  2, t  3 and may be formally written as equation(6) f(t1,t2,t3)=σˆe-iLtˆˆ3Pˆˆ3e-iLtˆˆ22Mˆˆ2e-iLtˆˆ22Pˆˆ2e-iLtˆˆ12Mˆˆ1e-iLtˆˆ12Pˆˆ1ρˆ0,Lˆˆ=Hˆˆ+iRˆˆwhere

ρˆ0 is the initial density matrix, σˆ is the detection state, Lˆˆ is the background Liouvillian of the system comprising a Hamiltonian Hˆˆ and a relaxation superoperator Rˆˆ, Pˆˆn are preparation pulse and delay propagators, and Mˆˆn are propagators of refocusing pulses in the middle of evolution periods. Because semigroups are associative, the result of Eq. (6) does not depend on the partitioning of Dirac brackets. In particular, equation(7) f(t1,t2,t3)=σˆe-iLtˆˆ3Pˆˆ3e-iLtˆˆ22Mˆˆ2e-iLtˆˆ22Pˆˆ2e-iLtˆˆ12Mˆˆ1e-iLtˆˆ12Pˆˆ1ρˆ0 This transformation Stem Cells inhibitor splits a 3D NMR simulation into one forward 2D simulation from the initial state, one backward 2D simulation from the detection state and one dot product in the middle. Eq. (7) is formally equivalent to Eq. (6), but the reduction in storage requirements is considerable – for a typical protein 3D NMR experiment, instead of a dense 64 × 64 × 256 × 106 array of complex doubles (over 16 TB of data) at the end of the t3 period in Eq. (6), the arrays in Eq. (7) have dimensions

of 64 × 64 × 106 and 64 × 256 × 106 as well as better sparsity, resulting in the worst-case storage requirements of about 256 GB. As per Eq. (7), their scalar product along the last dimension returns the required 64 × 64 × 256 free induction decay. Importantly, Eq. (7) retains the parallelization opportunities and the time-memory trade-offs offered by the fact that different t1 increments may be evolved independently Florfenicol in t2 forward, and different t3 increments may be evolved independently in t2 backward. The final operation – the matrix dot product in Eq. (7) – is also intrinsically parallel. Practical testing shows that the two-sided propagation technique reduces the simulation time of 3D NMR experiments on proteins (HNCO example is given in Fig. 4) by at least an order of magnitude. Even in reduced spaces the algebraic structure of the time-domain NMR simulation problem lends itself to multiple efficiency tweaks. Sparse matrix algebra [20] is advantageous because in the Pauli basis all spin Hamiltonian matrices are guaranteed to be sparse [19].

The calibration set consisted of a total of 116 samples (33 sampl

The calibration set consisted of a total of 116 samples (33 samples of roasted coffee, 27 samples of roasted coffee husks, 30 samples of roasted corn and 26 samples of adulterated coffee, with adulteration levels ranging from 50 to 10% of one or both adulterants). The evaluation set consisted of a total of 49 samples (15 samples

of roasted coffee, 11 samples of roasted coffee husks, 16 samples of roasted corn and 7 samples of adulterated coffee, with adulteration levels ranging from 50 to 10% of one or both adulterants). For both the calibration and evaluation sets, each sample represented one spectra, without any averaging procedure. It was observed that model recognition ability varied significantly with the number of variables. In the case of the models based on raw

and normalized spectra data, the best correlations were provided by sixteen and nineteen CSF-1R inhibitor variable models, respectively, with variables being selected in association to wavenumbers that presented high PC1 and PC2 loading values. The wavenumbers selected for the final models were: 3163, 2970, 2916, 2847, 2212, 2033, 1906, 1802, 1553, 1152, 947, 918, 872, RG7204 clinical trial 841, 789 and 750 cm−1 (raw data); 3125, 2991, 2498, 2125, 1958, 1780, 1641, 1539, 1331, 1171, 1134, 978, 908, 864, 833, 808, 806, 754 and 725 cm−1 (normalized data). There were also several attempts of obtaining a model based on spectra derivatives, since this type of spectra manipulation was the most effective in providing separation between pure corn, coffee and coffee husks (see Fig. 4c). However, it was not possible to obtain a model that could provide satisfactory discrimination and thus only the models based on raw and normalized data will be presented. The developed model equations can be represented by: equation(1)

DFi=C0+∑j=1NCjAjwhere DFi represents the discriminant Farnesyltransferase function (i = 1,2,3), N is the total number of variables in the model, and Aj is the model variable, i.e., absorbance value at the selected wavenumber (model based on raw spectra data) or absorbance value at the selected wavenumber after normalization and baseline correction (Model based on normalized data). The corresponding model coefficients (Cj) are displayed in Table 2 and the score plots obtained for the three discriminant functions are shown in Fig. 5. The first two discriminant functions accounted for 84 and 91% of the total sample variance, for the models based on raw and normalized spectra, respectively. A clear separation between pure roasted coffee and roasted adulterants (coffee husks and corn), as well as adulterated coffee samples, can be observed for both models (see Fig. 5a and b). Notice that, for the adulterated samples, there is a wider dispersion of the data due to the differences in both the nature of the adulterants and their content in the adulterated samples. The calculated values of each discriminant function at the group centroids are displayed in Table 3.

The current in the receiving coil can then be transformed into a

The current in the receiving coil can then be transformed into a power source for the implanted hardware or data signals can be extracted. Several

limiting factors in this approach complicate the design of wireless stimulating implants of any kind, neural prostheses included. The first is that the most efficient transfer of electromagnetic energy between the Selleck Trametinib primary and secondary coils occurs when the coils directly appose each other; physical separation and misalignment therefore impose an efficiency penalty due to the “uncoupling” of the transmitting and receiving coils (Rasouli and Phee, 2010). In particular, rapid reductions in power transfer efficiency are seen with relative angles >20° between the transmitting and receiving coils (Ng et al., 2011). This is particularly check details problematic for retinal implants, in which eye movement may require the use of additional coil pairs to ensure consistent coupling (Ng et al., 2011). In a cortical prosthesis the implanted electrode arrays may be self-contained, including inductive coils for power and data transmit/receive (Lowery, 2013 and Rush et al., 2011), or the power/data transfer electronics and coil may be separate from the arrays themselves (Coulombe et al., 2007). An advantage of the self-contained

array approach is the lack of any requirement for tethering, which may reduce damage to the cortex from relative motion of the brain and arrays in the long term (see Section 6.3.1). However, a disadvantage of the self-contained coils is the variation in coupling between the individual implanted array coils and the external coil. For example, arrays implanted on the medial surface of the occipital pole may be at a greater angle to the transmitting coil than those on the more lateral surface. Furthermore, if arrays are implanted more anteriorly onto medial calcarine cortex, these would be more distant from, and orthogonal to the external coil than the more

superficial arrays, resulting in poor or zero coupling and energy transfer. Aside from tethering medial arrays to a more superficially-mounted Vasopressin Receptor coil, alternatives may include the aforementioned optical or ultrasonic approaches to power and/or data transfer. Another consideration in the use of wireless power and data transfer derives from the absorption of electromagnetic energy by tissue, which increases exponentially with frequency (Al-Kalbani et al., 2012); the need to transfer sufficient power while maintaining high data transfer rates therefore introduces competing constraints that complicate the design process. Moreover, the separate wire coils used for data and power transfer can interfere with each other, introducing complexity to the design of receiving hardware (Kiani and Ghovanloo, 2014 and Rush et al., 2011).