2009; Miraucourt et al. 2009;
Takazawa and MacDermott 2010). This polysynaptic circuit contained at least two distincts pERK1/2- and PKCγ-expressing cells. The PKCγ cells in our condition open the gate, via descending pain facilitation which may induce local disinhibition, thereby allowing tactile nonnoxious stimuli Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to reach nociceptive processing neurons at the superficial MDH laminae. This is demonstrated here by the expression of pERK1/2, a marker expressed solely by noxious stimuli (Ji et al. 1999). Moreover, pERK1/2 was expressed in this study in the cells of lamina I, which are known to convey nociceptive stimuli. The Paclitaxel allodynic behavior observed in dopamine depleted animals is due, at least, to segmental sensitization, as demonstrated by the high increase in PKCγ expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation
in the MDH, and its Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical decrease after the i.p. administration of bromocriptine. This sensitization could be the consequence of central dysregulation of the descending inhibitory pain control pathway, hence decreasing its tonic inhibitory action in favor of pain facilitation at the level of the MDH in dopamine depleted rats. This is supported by reports demonstrating that activation of striatal D2R facilitates a descending inhibitory pain pathway Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (Ansah et al. 2007), and that the activation of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical striatal NMDA receptors (Pertovaara et al. 2004) provides tonic descending pain facilitatory influences. Indeed, the 6-OHDA depleted rats exhibited an increased concentration of glutamate within the striatum (Meshul et al. 1999; Chassain et al. 2005). Another way in which dopamine depletion may induce MDA is by acting through the prefrontal cortex. The latter constitutes a central structure in the medial pain pathway (Millan 2002). The prefrontal cortex also receives mesocortical dopamine projections which originate from the VTA and a high-frequency stimulation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of this structure inhibited nociceptive responses in the rat prefrontal cortex (Sogabe et al. 2013). VTA dopamine depletion could have affected our result by acting on the prefrontal
cortex, as the SNc is known not to project to cortical areas. Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating a www.selleckchem.com/products/BAY-73-4506.html trigeminal neuropathic process in rats with a bilateral Carfilzomib lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. It also demonstrated the implication of MDH segmental sensitization in the occurrence of DMA. Moreover, the local administration of D2R agonist at the MDH level systemically decreased allodynic behavior. Part of the analgesic effect of bromocriptine occurred at the MDH level and involved D2-type receptors. However, more studies are needed to clarify the neuronal circuitry by which dopamine depletion in the nigrostriatal pathway leads to trigeminal neuropathic pain. Conflict of Interest None declared.