This work establishes the basic kinetics of acclimation to low be

This work establishes the basic kinetics of acclimation to low bending frequency and these kinetic analyses will serve as the basis of ongoing work to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. Future research will also concern plant acclimation to higher wind frequencies”
“Fisher syndrome is characterized by the clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia. It is considered a variant form of Guillain-Barre syndrome, which is associated with anti-GQ1b antibodies. During initial

examinations of patients, physicians must rule out other neurologic disorders or conditions that resemble Fisher syndrome, such as vitamin B1 deficiency (Wernicke’s KPT-8602 encephalopathy), vascular disease, multiple sclerosis, collagen disease, Behcet disease, sarcoidosis, neoplasm of the brainstem, and infectious diseases such as diphtheria, botulism, and viral infections (eg, herpes encephalitis). The acute phase of Fisher syndrome should be carefully observed to see if it occurs concomitantly with Guillain-Barre syndrome or if there is development to Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis, as these require specific immune treatments. Typically, Fisher syndrome has a fairly good natural course. Although several reports have suggested the

possible efficacy of immunotherapies such as plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulins selleck chemicals llc (IVIg) in treating Fisher syndrome, there have been no randomized controlled studies. Large retrospective studies have suggested that neither plasmapheresis nor IVIg alters the clinical outcome of patients with Fisher syndrome, probably because of the good spontaneous recovery AZD1208 ic50 in these patients. Therefore, Fisher syndrome alone does not necessarily require immunotherapy. To accelerate the start of recovery, IVIg can be given, but it is important to first obtain informed consent from patients after the potential risks of blood products are explained. When overlap with Guillain-Barre syndrome or development to Bickerstaff brainstem

encephalitis occurs, plasma exchange or IVIg should be administered as early as possible because Guillain-Barre syndrome can cause respiratory failure or severe weakness with axonal degeneration, and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis may not have as good a natural course as Fisher syndrome alone. There have been no prospective, controlled studies (randomized or nonrandomized) of the use of immunotherapy to treat Fisher syndrome. To evaluate the efficacy of immunotherapies used to treat Fisher syndrome, large prospective studies are required.”
“Chromoplasts are non-photosynthetic specialized plastids that are important in ripening tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) since, among other functions, they are the site of accumulation of coloured compounds.

Results: 42% of clinics responded (216 of 518) The median annual

Results: 42% of clinics responded (216 of 518). The median annual clinic budget was $145,000, with 1% to 20% spent on medications. Of responding clinics, 30% had a licensed pharmacy

that was staffed on average by 3.4 pharmacist volunteers and 0.1 pharmacist employees. Of the 83.5% (177 of 212) that dispensed drugs, clinics filled 67 prescriptions per day with cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and anti-infective agents as top classes. Pharmacy personnel provided mainly traditional (e. g., distributive) services (61.1%), and 19.3% of clinics trained student pharmacists. Since 2001, the number of clinics (355 vs. 518) and prescriptions dispensed (29 vs. 67 per day) increased but the percentage with a licensed pharmacy (33% vs. 30%) and mean number of pharmacist volunteers/employees see more (3.8/0.1 vs. 3.4/0.1) remained constant.

Conclusion: The model of free clinic pharmacy services is a modified community practice. Pharmacy personnel have the opportunity to expand their MI-503 cost role and pharmacy practice in free clinics.”
“Objective: To compare earlier (sustainers) and later (new)

adopters in terms of pharmacy characteristics and characteristics of in-house vaccination services and to identify how sustainers modified their in-house vaccination services over time.

Design: Nonexperimental multistage study.

Setting: Washington State during 2003, 2004, and 2006-2007.

Participants: Community pharmacies included in this study’s analyses must have participated in all data collection stages and provided in-house vaccination Galunisertib manufacturer services during the third stage. Based on key informants’ self-reports, those who had provided in-house services before or since 2003 were sustainers and those who started their services after 2004 were new adopters.

Intervention: Mixed-mode survey.

Main outcome measures: Pharmacy characteristics and characteristics of in-house vaccination

services offered in 2003 and 2006 were measured in terms of service accessibility, scope, and supportive personnel.

Results: A total of 37 sustainers and 27 new adopters met the inclusion criteria. The majority of independent and supermarket pharmacies were sustainers, whereas the majority of chain and mass merchant pharmacies were new adopters. In-house services offered by sustainers were broader in service accessibility and scope and involved a greater number of pharmacists trained in immunization delivery than services offered by new adopters in the same year. Further, when comparing sustainers’ in-house services offered in 2003 and 2006, the 2006 services were expanded to provide year-round services, involved a greater number of settings, included services to adolescents, and involved a greater number of trained pharmacists.

Conclusion: Community pharmacies started their in-house vaccination services on a small scale and later expanded to a larger scale.

After a presentation

of the Jiles-Atherton model, the neu

After a presentation

of the Jiles-Atherton model, the neural network and the training procedure are described and the method is validated by using some numerical, as well as experimental, data. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3569735]“
“Telephone interviews have been used extensively as a tool to explore and assess sleep disorders and psychopathological conditions. The aim of this study was to set up and validate a telephone interview aimed at assessing the correlation A-1331852 between mood and sleep variables in adolescents. The study included 16-18 years subjects. A total of approximately 4,000 calls were made; 529 adolescents were finally enrolled. The questionnaire was divided into two parts: the first one focused on affective variables, the second one explored sleep variables. A factorial analysis was carried out to explore the structure of the questionnaire according to two factors: the first, which we labeled “”affective factor”", and the LBH589 price second, “”quality of sleep”". A positive correlation was found regarding the feeling of wellbeing on awakening. A negative correlation was found between feeling of wellbeing on awakening and daytime drowsiness. In

adolescence, increased daytime sleepiness seemed to correlate with worsening mood.”
“The current mediated domain-wall dynamics in a thin ferromagnetic wire is investigated. We derive the effective equations of motion of the domain wall. They are used to study the possibility to optimize the power supplied by electric current for the motion of domain walls in a nanowire. We show that a certain resonant time-dependent current moving a domain

wall can significantly reduce the Joule heating in the wire, and thus it can lead to a novel proposal for the most energy efficient memory devices. We discuss how Gilbert damping, nonadiabatic spin transfer torque, and the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction can effect this power optimization. VC 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3554202]“
“In adult-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) cases, major depression, fatigue and psychological distress are common, whereas there is little information on these issues in children with the disease. The aim of this study was to assess psychosocial disorders in an learn more Italian cohort of children and adolescent with MS. We evaluated 56 patients through self-assessment scales of depression (Children Depression Inventory) and fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale), a psychiatric interview [Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL)] and an interview on school and everyday activities. Significant fatigue was found in 11 patients (20%). Twelve of the 39 patients who underwent the K-SADS-PL received a formal diagnosis of an affective disorder. Moreover, MS affected school activities in 28% of cases, daily living activities in 41% and social relationships in 28%.

The selectivity and sensitivity of H2L were estimated in various

The selectivity and sensitivity of H2L were estimated in various solvents in the presence of other metal cations (Na+, Mg2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+).”
“Drug target deconvolution, a process that identifies targets to small molecules

in complex biological samples, which underlie the biological responses that are observed when a drug is administered, plays an important role in current drug discovery. Despite the fact that genomics and proteomics BI 6727 molecular weight have provided a flood of information that contributes to the progress of drug target identification and validation, the current approach to drug target deconvolution still poses dilemmas. Chemistry-based functional proteomics, a multidisciplinary

Selleckchem OSI-744 strategy, has become the preferred method of choice to deconvolute drug target pools, based on direct interactions between small molecules and their protein targets. This approach has already identified a broad panel of previously undefined enzymes with potential as drug targets and defined targets that can rationalize side effects and toxicity for new drug candidates and existing therapeutics. Herein, the authors discuss both activity-based protein profiling and compound-centric chemical proteomics approaches used in chemistry-based functional proteomics and their applications for the identification Selleck NU7441 and characterization of small molecular targets.”
“This study evaluated the effectiveness of two HAART regimens concomitant to rifampicin based tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Patients with TB/HIV diagnosis followed at the TB program between June 2000 and March 2005 were prospectively evaluated. The different HAART regimens

in antiretrovirals (ARV) treatment naive and ARV experienced patients were compared. The effectiveness of HAART was defined as a VL < 80 copies/mL from month 4 to month 10 after TB treatment. One hundred and forty-two patients were included. Among these, 68 (47%) were treatment naive and 76 (53%) previously exposed. Odds ratio (OR) in naive patients treated with efavirenz (EFV) based regimen (n=42) compared to ritonavir/saquinavir (RTV/SQV) based regimen (n=26) was 8.0 (CI=1.67-38.35, p=0.008). OR from ARV experienced patients treated with RTV/SQV based regimen compared to EFV was 3.08 (CI=0.65-14.6, p=0.15), although with no statistical significance. Better effectiveness and tolerability were observed in antiretrovirals treatment naive patients using EFV based regimens. Although not statistically significant, a favorable virologic response and a better tolerability were observed in the ARV experienced patients group who received a RTV/SQV based regimen.”
“Upper airway (UA) dilator muscles are critical for the maintenance of airway patency.

Methods:

Methods: Mizoribine mouse We collected 17 cases of MSC of the breast from 1,173 cases of breast cancer and analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics. Results : The age range was 31 to 69 years (mean age: 47.2). The mean tumor size was 3.6 cm. Twelve cases (70.6%) had a negative nodal status. The majority of the cases were of a high nuclear grade (grade III: 76.5%), and a high histologic grade (grade III: 88.2%). All the cases had no amplification of HER2, and they were negative for hormonal receptors, except for 2 cases with weak positivity. All the cases showed positivity for EGFR (3+:14 cases, 1+:3 cases). Clinical relapse was found in 3 patients on follow up and two of them expired due to lung and bone metastasis. Conclusions:

MSC is associated with high nuclear and histologic grades, a high EGFR expression and they are triple negative for ER, PR, and HER2. The EGFR immunopositivity of MSC suggests a basal-like subtype.”
“BACKGROUND: Urban populations worldwide are of increasingly diverse ethnicity. International recommendations suggest that ethnically specific norms should be applied when assessing spirometry, although the lower forced vital capacity (FVC) in African Americans is associated with lower survival.

OBJECTIVE: To assess differences in ventilatory function in a current, ethnically diverse British population.

METHODS: In a cross-sectional buy CX-6258 survey of three primary care practices in West London, 677 participants aged >= 40

years provided acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometric data. Ethnicity was self-defined using the British Census questions and grouped as ‘White’, ‘African-Caribbean’ and ‘Other’.

RESULTS: After adjustment, the ratio of 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) to FVC was 1.0% (95%CI -2.5 to 4.5) higher in Black men and 1.8% (-0.8 to 4.4) higher in Black women compared with the White population. In contrast, FVC was 870 ml (1140 to -600) lower in Black men and 590 ml (-760 to -420) lower in Black women. Participants from ‘Other’ ethnic groups had results

similar to those of Black participants.

CONCLUSIONS: The FEV1/FVC ratio can be used without regard to ethnic background to assess obstruction. However, FVC is systematically www.selleckchem.com/products/jq-ez-05-jqez5.html lower in all minority ethnic groups.”
“Case Descriptions-A 4-year-old spayed female Golden Retriever (dog 1) was examined because of acute edema and erythema in the left hind limb and an inguinal mass, and a 5-year-old female Jack Russell Terrier (dog 2) was examined because of a recurring retroperitoneal mass.

Clinical Findings-Dog 1 had an edematous, hyperemic left hind limb with a fixed inguinal mass. Monocytic neutrophilic leukocytosis and hypoalbuminemia were detected. Diagnostic imaging revealed abnormal tissue surrounding the larger vessels and ureters and complete occlusion of the left limb veins. Surgery resulted in incomplete removal of the mass. Histologic examination revealed fibrosing pyogranulomatous inflammation.

Ultrasound is the most appropriate

Ultrasound is the most appropriate MI-503 datasheet form of imaging in urogynecology for reasons of cost, access and performance, and due to the fact that it provides information in real time. I will outline the main uses of this technology in pelvic reconstructive surgery and focus on areas in which the benefit to patients and clinicians is most evident. I will also try and give a perspective for the next 5 years, to consider how imaging may transform the way we deal with pelvic

floor disorders.”
“Background: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is an uncommon complication of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children. Few studies examine the Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes associated with HUS. Our objective was to describe the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae-related HUS (SP-HUS) and the serotypes associated with HUS in Utah children.

Methods: We reviewed separate longitudinal databases of HUS and IPD. These included all children <18 years cared for at Primary Children’s Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT, with IPD from 1997 to 2008 and all children learn more in Utah with HUS since 1971.

Results: We identified 435 Utah children with culture-confirmed IPD (1997-2008) and 460 with HUS (1971-2008). There were no reported cases of SP-HUS before 1997. With the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in 2000, the percentage of IPD complicated by SP-HUS has increased from 0.3% to 5.6% (P < 0.001). Pneumonia

(P = 0.051) and empyema (P = 0.012) were associated with the development of SP-HUS compared with IPD without SP-HUS. Children with SP-HUS also required ICU care and had longer stays than those with IPD alone. Only serotype 3 appeared associated with SP-HUS (P = 0.067).

Conclusions: We identified an increasing incidence of SP-HUS in Utah children. SP-HUS is a serious complication of IPD associated most frequently with pneumonia and empyema because of serotypes not included in the PCV-7, particularly serotype 3.”
“A new Heusler alloy, Fe-2(Mn, Cr) Si, that LY2606368 concentration is likely to have high spin polarization (P) and high damping constant (alpha) was proposed to obtain high magneto-resistance ratio and low

spin torque noise in a magnetic read head with a current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) giant magneto-resistance (GMR) multilayer. A very high frequency (VHF) plasma irradiation process during radio frequency (RF) sputter deposition was investigated to form the highly ordered structure of the Heusler alloy film with low thermal treatment temperature. The main results are as follows: (1) P and magnetic moment of Fe-2(Mn0.5Cr0.5) Si with an L2(1) structure were estimated at 0.99 and 2.49 mu B/f.u., respectively, and alpha was also estimated to be larger compared with the case of Co2MnSi, according to density of states (DOS) calculations. (2) The ordering (at least B2 structure) temperature of Fe-2(Mn0.6Cr0.4) Si film decreased from 500 to 300 degrees C by using the VHF plasma irradiation process with optimized condition.

Correct histopathological diagnosis is therefore crucial, but the

Correct histopathological diagnosis is therefore crucial, but there is overlap between histological patterns of malignant tumours, between benign and malignant lesions, and with non-mesenchymal tumours. Immunohistochemistry and molecular genetic techniques, the latter to detect tumour-specific alterations, add significantly to histological interpretation, but several groups of tumours still lack reliable immunohistochemical markers or reproducible genetic changes. The classification of sarcomas is incomplete and continues to evolve, and although the biology

of many remains relatively poorly understood, selleck chemicals llc our increasing insight into molecular events occurring in these tumours is certain to aid future diagnosis and therapy. This paper aims to give a broad overview of several of the main soft tissue sarcomas from a clinicopathological perspective, discussing laboratory diagnosis and the use and limitations of ancillary investigations, including recent developments in molecular diagnosis. Thway, K. (2009). Clinical Oncology 21, 695-705 (C) 2009 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for epilepsy is a well established and effective AZD1480 price treatment for medically intractable epilepsy. VNS

is indicated if resective epilepsy surgery is unsuccessful or is not an option. About 50% of patients with VNS have a seizure reduction greater than 50%, but less than 10% become seizure-free. selleckchem VNS also has an alerting

effect on patients and may allow a reduction in sedating medications. The major adverse event is hoarseness, but treatment is generally well tolerated. The therapeutic effect can be delayed: patients may improve several months after VNS implantation. Direct brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging treatment for epilepsy. Scheduled stimulation is similar to brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease. Only the anterior thalamic nucleus has been studied in a larger randomized, controlled trial, in which patients with the stimulator turned on had a significantly reduced seizure frequency. Responsive stimulation applies an electrical stimulus at the site of seizure onset to terminate the seizure if one occurs. The seizure-onset zone must be well defined before implantation. Responsive stimulation requires seizure detection and application of a stimulus online. A large pivotal trial showed a significant reduction in seizure frequency. Both DBS and responsive neurostimulation are well tolerated, but there has been some concern about depression with DBS. Infection, hemorrhage, and lead breakage are adverse events possible with any type of stimulator. None of the brain stimulation devices have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, but final approval is expected soon. These devices are indicated for patients with bilateral seizure onset or seizure onset in eloquent areas.

When parents are hesitant about vaccination for their children, p

When parents are hesitant about vaccination for their children, providers may face a significant challenge reconciling their commitment to the health of those children, their respect for the perspectives of parents, and their interest in the health of their other patients and their communities. The tensions and potential conflicts among these considerations help to explain why provider responses to vaccine LDC000067 hesitancy have emerged as a frequent topic of discussion among practitioners, public health advocates, and ethicists alike.”
“Laparoscopic

adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) has become a standard restrictive procedure in the USA for the treatment of severe obesity (body mass index, BMI > 35 kg/m(2)). Mildly obese individuals (BMI < 35 kg/m(2)) are also at increased risk from obesity-related conditions. Recently, an FDA panel supported its use in this

subgroup. We compared the perioperative outcomes of LAGB in mildly and severely obese. Thirty consecutive patients (mildly obese n = 10; severely obese n = 20) that underwent preoperative medical weight loss followed by LAGB procedures were prospectively evaluated. Outcome variables included: operative room (OR) time, intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL), length of hospital (LOS), and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, reoperations, readmissions, 30-day this website morbidity and mortality. Demographic data was comparable between groups. BMI was significantly higher in the severely obese compared to mildly obese (44.0 +/- 5 vs. 33.6 +/- 1 kg/m(2)). OR time, EBL, LOS, and ICU admissions were similar between BMI groups. There were no reoperations or 30-day mortality in either group. Minor morbidity was only observed in the severely obese group. BMI correlated with OR time and EBL. In mildly obese, LAGB is as safe as in the severely obese with no perioperative morbidity. The perioperative outcomes and hospital resource utilization are comparable between BMI groups. Lower BMI is associated with lower operative times and blood loss.”
“Purpose of review

The left internal thoracic artery is acknowledged as the best coronary conduit. The right

internal thoracic artery (RITA) is identical to the left ITA (LITA), yet, despite excellent published results, the AZD2014 supplier RITA [as part of bilateral ITA (BITA) grafting] is rarely used in coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). With advances in CABG and drug-eluting stents (DESs) for coronary artery disease, it is timely to review the clinical and patency results when RITA is used in BITA, to define its role in the treatment of multivessel coronary artery disease.

Recent findings

RITA use is 4% in the USA, and 10% in the UK and Australia, although higher in some centres. Perioperative mortality of BITA is 1-3%. Morbidity is low, 1-2% for stroke and perioperative myocardial infarction, and 2-3% for postoperative bleeding. Deep sternal wound infection is also low, 1-3%.

Methods: This 2-year survey focused on hemorrhagic stroke occurri

Methods: This 2-year survey focused on hemorrhagic stroke occurring in pregnancy, delivery, and puerperium. Clinical data based on retrospective chart Torin 1 supplier review were obtained through a questionnaire and analyzed according to the time of onset, underlying CVDs, obstetric systemic complications, therapeutic approaches, and maternal and neonatal prognoses. Results: The survey identified 97 hemorrhagic strokes that were associated with pregnancy. Baseline CVDs responsible for hemorrhage were detected in 54 cases (55.7%), among which 47 lesions (87.0%) had been undiagnosed before stroke onset.

The detection rate of baseline CVDs before the 32nd week of gestation was significantly higher than that

after the 32nd week (90.0% versus 53.3%, P = .0017). Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were the most frequent CVDs causing intracranial hemorrhage, occurring at 1.8 times the frequency of ruptured aneurysms during pregnancy. Poor outcomes, including 10 deaths, were seen in 36.1% of the cases despite aggressive treatment. Conclusion: Pregnancy-associated hemorrhagic strokes PF-03084014 mw frequently concealed baseline CVDs, especially when they occurred before the 32nd week of gestation. AVMs were the predominant bleeding source. For appropriate treatment, therefore, close examination for cerebral vascular lesions is essential when a pregnancy-associated hemorrhagic stroke is encountered.”
“Latinos comprise nearly 16 percent of the U.S. population, and this proportion is anticipated to increase

to 30 percent by 2050. Latinos are a diverse ethnic group that includes many different cultures, races, MLN2238 and nationalities. Barriers to care have resulted in striking disparities in quality of health care for these patients. These barriers include language, lack of insurance, different cultural beliefs, and in some cases, illegal immigration status, mistrust, and illiteracy. The National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services address these concerns with recommendations for culturally competent care, language services, and organizational support. Latinos have disproportionately higher rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus. Other health problems include stress, neurocysticercosis, and tuberculosis. It is important to explore the use of alternative therapies and belief in traditional folk illnesses, recognizing that health beliefs are dependent on education, socioeconomic status; and degree of acculturation. Many but not all folk and herbal treatments can be safely accommodated with conventional therapy. Physicians must be sensitive to Latino cultural values of simpatia (kindness), personalism (relationship), respeto (respect), and modestia (modesty). The LEARN technique can facilitate cross-cultural interviews.

8%) validity, and scaling success (86 8%) rates Cronbach’s alpha

8%) validity, and scaling success (86.8%) rates. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients exceeded 0.70 for all scales, except problems with sexuality (0.60) and problems with senses (0.61), which also evidenced a lower scaling success rate (50%). Confirmation of construct validity included satisfactory results for inter-scale correlations and GDC-0068 cost known-groups comparisons for most scales; most correlations were statistically significant (p<0.01), with conceptually related scales showing relatively higher correlation. Most scale scores were able to discriminate clearly between pre- and current treatment

patients.

Conclusions: Results of the study provide strong support for the psychometric robustness of the ‘Sinhala’ version of the

QLQ-H&N35. It may be advisable to interpret the two items assessing sensory problems separately, and to elicit information on sexuality from only those who are sexually active. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent AG-014699 molecular weight gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n = 13) versus Supported Care (individualised Selleckchem SYN-117 exercise program with regular telephone support; n = 15). Baseline characteristics (Mean +/- SD) were: Age 33 +/- 4 years; Weight 80 +/- 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI) 30.0 +/- 9.7 kg/m(2). The primary outcome, planned physical activity Median (Range), increased by 60 (0-540) mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0-580) mins/week

in the UC group (P = 0.234). Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period.”
“Histology is an important outcome variable in basic science and pre-clinical studies regarding intervertebral disc degeneration (IVD). Nevertheless, an adequately validated histological classification for IVD degeneration is still lacking and the existing classifications are difficult to use for inexperienced observers.

Objective: Therefore the aim of this study was to develop and to validate a new histological classification for IVD degeneration. Moreover, the new classification was compared to the frequently used nonvalidated classification.

Methods: The new classification was applied to human IVD sections.