The cellular responses to the modified proteins were examined using cells from
malaria-exposed infants and adults.
Results: Interestingly, stimulation indices (SI) for responses induced by some of the Selleckchem CX-6258 modified proteins were at least two-fold higher than those elicited by the wild-type MSP1(19). A protein with four amino acid substitutions (Glu27 -> Tyr, Leu31 -> Arg, Tyr34 -> Ser and Glu43 -> Leu) had the highest stimulation index (SI up to 360) and induced large responses in 64% of the samples that had significant cellular responses to the modified proteins.
Conclusion: This study suggests that specific MSP1(19) variants that have been engineered to improve their antigenicity PFTα for inhibitory antibodies, retain T-cell epitopes and the ability to induce cellular responses. These proteins are
candidates for the development of MSP1-based malaria vaccines.”
“RNA viruses that affect honeybees have been involved in colony losses reported around the world. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of honeybee viruses during 2006-2007 in Spanish professional apiaries, and their association with colony losses. Four hundred and fifty-six samples from apiaries located in different geographic regions of Spain Cediranib order were analyzed. Thirty-seven percent of the samples had viral presence. Most
(80%) had one virus and 20% two different viruses. All the analyzed viruses, Deformed Wing Virus (DWV), Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV), Sacbrood Virus (SBV) and Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV) were detected, but detection rates were lower than expected. According to these results and considering the high prevalence of other honeybee pathogens in Spain, the role of viruses in colony losses in Spain may be discussed. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The mechanisms responsible for oxidative damage, pathological brain iron deposition and mitochondrial insufficiency in Alzheimer disease (AD) remain enigmatic. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a 32 kDa stress protein that catabolizes heme to biliverdin, free iron and carbon monoxide. The HO-1 gene is exquisitely sensitive to oxidative stress and is induced in brain and other tissues in various models of disease and trauma.