In clinical practice and some clinical research, the location of

In clinical practice and some clinical research, the location of the endpoint is often determined by the sensation perceived by the patient or by the amount of resistance perceived by the therapist. Therefore many factors can affect the endpoint of joint range achieved in simple manual tests commonly used to assess muscle extensibility. For example, alterations in tolerance to stretch or changes in the extensibility of the surrounding non-muscular tissue could also cause improvements in the joint range achieved (Folpp et al 2006, Law et al 2009). Nevertheless, physiotherapists may be interested in the results of these simple

manual tests, because poor results on the tests have been associated with injury risk or other clinical problems (Krivickas and Feinberg 1996, Kaufman et al 1999, Knapik et al 2001, Witvrouw et al 2003). Notably, gender differences Cell Cycle inhibitor were frequently apparent in these studies. Physiotherapists may also be interested in interventions that improve apparent muscle extensibility on simple manual tests, even if the precise mechanism of the improvement is unclear, because these interventions sometimes also improve more clinically relevant outcomes as well (Ross 2007, Khalili et al 2008, Christiansen 2008, Cristopoliski

et al 2009, Aoki et al 2009, Rose et al 2010). Several CSF-1R inhibitor of these relationships between apparent muscle extensibility on simple manual tests and these clinical outcomes have been identified

for the hamstrings specifically. When simple manual tests indicate reduced hamstring extensibility, this is often associated with hip and knee joint movement dysfunction (Frigo et al 1979, McNair et al 1992, Whyte et al 2010) and lumbosacral postural changes (Napiontek and Czubak 1988). A possible causative nature to these associations is suggested by research into simulation of hamstring shortening, which induces gait abnormalities in healthy people (Whitehead et al 2007). Imbalances in apparent muscle extensibility between the right and left hip extensors, including the hamstrings, may also predispose athletes to injury (Knapik et al 1991). Because of the potential role of hamstring extensibility in movement dysfunction and injury, a range of interventions intended to improve hamstring extensibility have been investigated (Kisner and Colby 2002). These include static stretches (de Weijer et al 2003, Folpp et al 2006, Bazett-Jones et al 2008, Law et al 2009, Ben and Harvey, 2010), ballistic stretches (la Roche and Connolly, 2006, Covert et al 2010), stretching with warm up (de Weijer et al 2003), stretching with local joint manipulation (Fox 2006), and local application of heat (Funk et al 2001). While some significant improvements in simple manual tests of apparent hamstring extensibility were noted in some of these trials, the effects were generally small from a clinical perspective.

Using pp65 soluble peptides loaded externally on iDCs, both Smyle

Using pp65 soluble peptides loaded externally on iDCs, both SmyleDCs and SmartDCs potently stimulated T cells to proliferate and upregulated the production of several inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-3, GM-CSF, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-5), resulting into “licensed antigen presentation” of different pp65 antigenic determinants in vitro (20–30% of the cells stimulated in vitro for 7 days were reactive against pp65 epitopes). The pp65-reactive T cells stimulated in vitro with peptides were in the majority characterized as T central memory (TCM, 43–58%) and T effector memory (TEM, 40–47%) phenotype. Interestingly, SmyleDCs bypassed the requirement of additional in vitro maturation with recombinant

cytokines for optimal antigen-specific T cell stimulation ( Fig. S7), indicating that SmyleDCs are more endogenously activated than SmartDCs. When the pp65 antigen was provided internally, in the form of a full-length pp65 antigen expressed stably for 3 weeks Gefitinib manufacturer by a co-transduced ID-LV, we observed potent stimulation of pp65-reactive multivalent T cells in vitro ( Fig. 5 and Fig. 6). Notably, in this setting the majority of the T cells displayed a TEM phenotype (although 10–40% of TCM were also observed); possibly indicating that pp65 internal processing by the iDCs per se provided higher immune stimulation. Moreover, these iDCs were endowed with potent functional activities in vivo, as

they were able to directly stimulate the generation of effector CD8+ T cell responses in NRG mice reconstituted with human lymphocytes. Since NRG mice lack a functional lymphatic system and lymph nodes to where iDCs could migrate to, it is therefore likely that GDC-0199 in vivo iDCs

stimulated T cells directly on the immunization sites. those Based on these results, the use of SmyleDCs or SmartDCs co-expressing pp65 for the development of prophylactic vaccines to boost the immune response in lymphopenic hosts at high risk of HCMV infection should be considered. It has been demonstrated that the transfer of adoptive immunity against HCMV after HSCT depends on the specificity and memory phenotype of specific T cells in the donor [44]. Thus, a potential population target for vaccination in order to avoid HCMV recurrent reactivations would be immunosuppressed HCMV seropositive recipients of grafts from seropositive or seronegative donors. After transplantation, recipients would be vaccinated with iDCs produced from donor’s monocytes in order to minimize graft-versus-host disease. Regarding the choice between the two types of iDCs for an antiviral vaccine, it is tempting to speculate that SmyleDCs would be the first choice, based on several proposed superior attributes conferred to DCs produced in the presence of IFN-α instead of IL-4 which led to a recent clinical trials using ex vivo generated DCs as vaccines for chronically infected HIV-1 patients ( [21].

Although the validity of diagnostic codes for shingles was slight

Although the validity of diagnostic codes for shingles was slightly lower for females than for males in an American study, shingles was still more common in females than in males [16]. The higher rates of medically attended shingles in females than males might

be related to gender differences in immunosuppressive disease or therapies [17]; we were not able to examine click here this. One may also speculate that there might be gender differences in immune responses to latent viral infections. Gender differences in health seeking behaviour could also contribute to the observed higher rate of shingles in females than males; for persons aged less than 65 years, rates of health service utilization are higher for females than for males in Alberta (Alberta Health, unpublished). Among the youngest age-group (i.e., less than 10 years of age), medically attended shingles rates have declined in the post-vaccine era for both females and males. This is not surprising as this is the age-group that would have received chickenpox vaccine, and the rate of shingles among those immunized is lower than among persons who have had wild disease [18]. The data used for the analysis were assembled and analyzed at the individual level prior to aggregations being created. Although we used individual level data to estimate shingles rates, we did not have individual level data to assess chickenpox vaccination. Therefore,

it is possible that some factor other than the introduction of the publicly funded chickenpox vaccination

program might be responsible for part of the observed changes in shingles rates over the periods of examined. Thus our findings may be prone to the ‘ecologic fallacy’ where the results from aggregate data may not fully apply at the individual level [19]. We Cell press did not attempt to generalize overall trends within any age/sex group to the individual level. Other possible explanations for the increasing rates of shingles among older persons over time include possible secular trends (increases) in the occurrence of immunosuppressive diseases or therapies [17] and [20]. Having a co-morbid health condition was strongly associated with medically attended shingles rates for both sexes among persons aged less than 65 years. Although the proportion of medically attended shingles cases with a co-morbid condition in the 12 months prior to medically attended shingles episode is less than 2%, this proportion may be increasing among females compared to males in the public availability period for shingles vaccine. Although we found that only 4% of medically attended shingles cases were hospitalized, this is an over-estimation of the proportion of cases where the hospitalization is attributable to shingles. It has been observed elsewhere that two-thirds of hospitalizations that included zoster codes in any position of a permitted15 diagnostic codes for hospitalization were incidental to the hospitalization[21].

We also must not ignore the complexity of integrated record devel

We also must not ignore the complexity of integrated record development and annual maintenance of these documents,

including the annual procurement and periodic revision processes as well as more complex discussions of sustainable financing across contributing programmes, all of which inherently creates scenarios of increased risk of stock-outs or shortages of cards for the annual birth cohort. Good clinical and public health practice benefits from good documentation standards that reflect the importance of complete, timely, and accurate recording of information. Immunization programme documentation standards, Quizartinib as reflected by our review of home-based vaccination records, differ substantially from country to country

and at times within countries. Implementation of documentation standards and operational HKI-272 concentration practice in the field likely varies even more so. Our review assessed the content of cards based on instructions and content as printed and cannot detect variations in field use which likely exist (e.g., stamps that might be used in some fields or practices of recording additional information in a field such as recording lot number in a column labelled “comments”). The World Health Organization is currently refining guidelines for the content and basic structure of home-based child vaccination records. Although that work is on-going, we would like to highlight the following items which are almost certainly to be reflected in the guidelines

in as much as these are derived from general principles of high quality medical records, whether paper- or computer-based. • Perhaps unique to home-based paper records, the physical medium (e.g., water- and tear-resistant paper, heavier card stock paper) used for the document is important to consider given the often harsh conditions to which the document is exposed. Alternatively or in addition, a protective sheath or sleeve can be considered to protect the record. In summary, the role of the home-based vaccination record as basic medical record is clear. The different forms of home-based child vaccination records Thalidomide [7] reflects integration with other child survival programme areas; however, it remains an open question as to whether there are related adverse impacts on the quality of documentation following receipt of immunization services. We expect home-based vaccination records to continue to evolve particularly with respect to adoption of new and more effective designs and incorporation of technology such as use of bar codes or embedded microchips to facilitate transitions to electronic based systems.

In adjusted analyses, models were adjusted for all other predicto

In adjusted analyses, models were adjusted for all other predictor variables. Robust standard errors were used to account for clustering by PCT. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A complete case

analysis was carried out for each regression model; this was considered reasonable because analysis of missing observations for predictor variables indicated that missingness was not associated with outcome variables. Potential modification of the main effects by child’s overweight category, child’s age, or Entinostat clinical trial PCT was assessed by the inclusion of interaction terms. All analyses were carried out using Stata version 12 (College Station, TX: StataCorp). Table 1 shows the study sample characteristics. Of the 3397 parents who responded to the baseline questionnaire (response rate = 18.9%), 579 (17.0% of respondents) had children who were classified as overweight or obese. Of these, 202 parents that responded at baseline and Trichostatin A supplier one month follow-up (34.9% of baseline sample) formed the sample for analysis of intention to change; 285 parents that responded at baseline and to at least one of the follow-up questionnaires (49.2% of baseline) formed the sample for analysis of behaviour change; 94% of parents in the sample recalled receiving the feedback letter.

At one month follow-up, 38.2% of parents of overweight children identified their child as overweight, and 28.7% recognised health risks associated with their child’s weight. Most parents (72.1%, n = 145) reported an intention to change health-related behaviours at one month; of these, 32 parents (22%) had not reported

an intention at baseline. In adjusted analyses (Table 2), intention to change behaviour was positively associated with parental recognition of child overweight status (odds ratio OR 11.20, 95% confidence interval CI 4.49, 27.93). Positive associations with parental recognition of health risks, child age and ethnicity that were observed in unadjusted analyses Cell press were attenuated in the adjusted model. Other a priori predictor variables were not associated with intention. Just over half (54.7%, n = 156 out of 285) of parents reported a positive change in health-related behaviours after receiving feedback about their child’s weight; 39.5% reported an improvement in diet, 14.0% an improvement in physical activity, 25.3% an improvement in screen-time, and 23.3% a positive change in service use. A third of parents (33.7%, n = 96) made changes to just one type of behaviour, 15.4% made changes to two behaviours, 6.0% to three, and 0.4% to all four. In adjusted analyses (Table 3), child’s school year was positively associated with behaviour change after NCMP feedback, with parents of children aged 10–11 more likely to report behaviour change than parents of children aged 4–5 (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1,35, 2.70).

Other matching factors included region (Northern California, Colo

Other matching factors included region (Northern California, Colorado, Hawaii), age (within 1 year), sex, prior year healthcare use (number of hospital, emergency department [ED], and clinic visits), and specific medical center (only for subjects from Northern California, where there were 48 clinics).

Dose number (first or second dose in those 5–8 years of age) was also matched between LAIV recipients and TIV controls for subjects from Northern California and Hawaii; matching by dose was not possible in Carfilzomib molecular weight Colorado owing to the small number of subjects. Unvaccinated and TIV-vaccinated concurrent controls were matched 1:1 with LAIV recipients, respectively. If a match could not be found within a specific control group, the LAIV recipient was excluded from the cohort comparison. Study day 0 for each participant in the LAIV-vaccinated group was the date of receipt of the first dose of the current seasonal LAIV formulation. Study day 0 for each unvaccinated and TIV-vaccinated matched concurrent control was defined as the date of vaccination of the reference LAIV recipient or the date of the first dose of current TIV, respectively. Subsequent study days were numbered sequentially thereafter. Diagnoses from all MAEs occurring in study subjects were collected from outpatient

clinic visits, ED visits, and hospital admissions via extraction of records from the KP utilization databases. An MAE was defined as a coded medical diagnosis made by a healthcare provider and associated with a medical encounter. Ivacaftor in vitro One or more MAEs could be assigned for a single encounter. MAEs were evaluated regardless of whether the individual had a pre-existing history of the same or a similar condition; the analysis was not restricted to incident MAEs. Consistent with a prior study of LAIV safety conducted in KP [3], medical events that were hypothesized a priori as potentially first causally related to vaccination based on the pathophysiology of wild-type influenza were

grouped together in 5 event categories and analyzed cumulatively across all settings as prespecified diagnoses of interest (PSDI), which included (1) acute respiratory tract events (ART), (2) acute gastrointestinal tract events (AGI), (3) asthma and wheezing events (AW), (4) systemic bacterial infections (SBI), and (5) rare diagnoses potentially related to wild-type influenza (WTI). Asthma and wheezing events were a subset of ART; AW events were followed for 180 days, in contrast to the 42 days surveillance for other PSDIs. These event categories are detailed in Supplemental Digital Content 1, a table of descriptions of the prespecified diagnoses of interest. PSDI events were analyzed individually and cumulatively by category. Individual chart reviews were performed for select outcomes of interest to confirm specific diagnoses.

84% and 63 83% respectively ( Table 4) CPAE 250 and 500 mg/kg bo

84% and 63.83% respectively ( Table 4). CPAE 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight treatment Linsitinib also reduced serum creatinine levels significantly (p < 0.01) but serum urea levels were significantly (p < 0.01) reduced by CPAE at dose of 500 mg/kg only ( Fig. 1b). In order to obtain reproducible chromatographic fingerprint of CPAE for quality control, the method validation of HPLC-PDA fingerprint analysis was performed on the basis of the retention time and the peak area.

The experiment was conducted to examine the classification and concentration of phytochemicals in three categories according to their polarity. The possible separated chemical flux under experimental condition, which have chromophoric group have been shown in the chromatogram. A typical chromatograms of aqueous extract of C. pareira Linn. (CPAE) is shown in Fig. 2. It could be concluded that most of the reverse-phase separated compounds were of medium polar nature, presumably belongs to chalcone–flavones by characteristic UV spectra. The possibility of any alkaloids was ruled out by negative dragendorff test of eluent of this region. The fundamental basis of hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus is over-production (excessive hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis)

TSA HDAC and decreased utilization of glucose by the tissues leading to persistent hyperglycemia which might be responsible for most diabetic complications. Lowering blood glucose to near-normal Liothyronine Sodium levels should be aimed to treat all diabetic patients.15 CPAE has capacity to reduce blood glucose level significantly in glucose fed hyperglycemic normal mice during OGTT. This effect may occur due to reduction in intestinal glucose absorption or induction of glycogenic process along with reduction in glycogenolysis and glyconeogenesis.16 Streptozotocin (STZ) causes selectively necrotize pancreatic β-cells. Metformin (a biguanide) is often used as a standard

antidiabetic drug in STZ-induced experimental diabetes.17 The results demonstrated that CPAE significantly reduced the blood glucose level which is associated with the effectiveness of C. pareira for controlling hyperglycemia. The extra cellular glucose in the presence of insulin converts into glycogen in the liver cells and the enzymes glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase are responsible for glycogen metabolism. Our results demonstrated that there was significant loss in liver tissue glycogen level in diabetic animals. Treatment with CPAE significantly increased liver glycogen which might be associated with stimulation of glycogenesis and/or inhibition of glycogenolysis in the liver of diabetic mice. Hypertriglyceridemia is most common abnormality in diabetes.15 A significant increased state of triglycerides was observed in toxin treated animals. In diabetic state, LDL carries cholesterol to its depositing site (i.e.

Pneumovax™ was kindly donated by CSL Biotherapies, Australia The

Pneumovax™ was kindly donated by CSL Biotherapies, Australia. The co-administered Tritanrix™-HepB™ and Hiberix™ vaccines were kindly donated by GlaxoSmithKline. number NCT00170612. “
“The obligate intracellular pathogen

Chlamydophila (Cp.) psittaci primarily infects birds and is horizontally transmitted through aerosols of nasal secretions and faeces. Initially, the respiratory tract is infected, from where the disease further spreads leading to a systemic infection. Mainly in the poultry industry substantial financial losses result from a decrease in egg-production and the need for antibiotic treatment. Zoonotic transmission occurs in people in close contact with infected birds, the clinical outcome ranging from unapparent to severe flu-like symptoms or pneumonia [1].

Immunisation with a plasmid DNA encoding the Major Outer Membrane Protein GSK1120212 supplier (pcDNA1/MOMP) leads to significant protection against severe clinical signs, lesions and bacterial excretion as compared to placebo-vaccinated controls [2]. However, rhinitis (in 43% of the turkeys), pharyngeal excretion (14%) and thoracic (71%) and abdominal (29%) air sac lesions can still be observed. It has been reported that DNA vaccination, using unformulated plasmid DNA (pDNA), shows a low gene transfer efficiency in the host cell and hence a low antigen expression [3]. Therefore, we examined if we could further improve the current pcDNA1/MOMP vaccine. To enhance pDNA delivery into the host

cells, cationic liposomes or cationic ABT 199 TCL polymers such as polyethyleneimine (PEI) and dendrimers can be used. These cationic carriers bind the pDNA electrostatically and condense it into positively charged nanoparticles that are more easily taken up by host cells. Furthermore, they protect the pDNA against extracellular nucleases [4]. Several studies have already shown that cationic liposomes, PEI and dendrimers can enhance the transfection efficiency leading to improved gene expression in vitro and in vivo [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11] and [12]. To optimise transgene expression, different strategies like the use of regulatory elements, Kozak sequences and codon optimisation can be applied [13]. In a recent study performed by Zheng et al. [14], codon optimisation significantly enhanced gene expression and immunogenicity of a C. muridarum MOMP-based DNA vaccine. The first aim of this study was to investigate whether the transfection efficiency of pcDNA1/MOMP could be enhanced by forming complexes with cationic liposomes or polymers, in addition to improving the translation efficiency of the cloned ompA gene by codon optimisation. Another critical step in the immunisation process is the choice of the vaccine delivery route, which plays a vital role in creating protective immune responses. In experimental studies, the intramuscular route is generally accepted as the ‘gold standard’.

For the CTL assay, frozen PBMC samples from each time point were

For the CTL assay, frozen PBMC samples from each time point were thawed and cultured for 24 h prior to use in complete medium consisting of RPMI 1640 (Invitrogen) supplemented with

nonessential amino acids (Invitrogen), penicillin/streptomycin (Invitrogen) and 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS; Invitrogen) at 37 °C, in a 5% CO2 incubator. Autologous tumor cells were maintained in a 6 well plate coated with matrigel matrix (BD bioscience, San Jose, CA) in DMEM (Invitrogen) supplemented with penicillin/streptomycin and 10% FBS. The day of the assay, effector cells were incubated with target cells in complete RPMI 1640 media in 12 × 75 mm Facs tubes (BD bioscience) click here for 5 h at 37 °C in 5% CO2. The effector/target cell ratio used was 10:1 with 1 × 105 PBMCs. Effector cells from each time point were cultured alone (no targets) as control for spontaneous degranulation and IFNγ elaboration. A representative background degranulation response is shown in Fig. 2B, left panel. FITC conjugated anti-CD107b

antibody (AbD Serotec, Oxford, UK) or IgG1 isotype control (AbD Serotec) was added at the beginning of the co-culture. After a 1-h coincubation, Monensin (1:100 dilution; BD Biosciences) and Brefeldin A (3 μg/ml final concentration; eBioscience) were added for the last 4 h of incubation [26]. Following incubation, cell suspensions were washed with ice-cold PBS and stained for with anti-CD8 Mephenoxalone antibody conjugated to Alexa Fluor 700 (AbD Serotec) for 30 min at 4 °C. Samples were then fixed and permeabilized using BD Cytofix/Cytoperm kit (BD bioscience) and stained for intracellular IFNγ with the cross-reactive anti-bovine IFNγ antibody conjugated to PE (AbD Serotec). For detection of Tregs, frozen PBMCs were thawed and added at 1 × 105 in 12 × 75 mm Facs tubes. Cell surface staining was done using Pacific Blue-conjugated anti-dog CD4 antibody (AbD Serotec) or IgG1 isotype control (AbD Serotec) at 4 °C for 30 min. Following incubation, cell suspensions were

washed with cold PBS and resuspended in fixation permeabilization working solution (Foxp3 staining buffer set, eBioscience) overnight. The next day cells were washed with permeabilization buffer (Foxp3 staining buffer set, eBiosceince) followed by intracellular staining with a cross-reactive anti-mouse Foxp3 PeCy-5 conjugated antibody (eBioscience) at 4 °C for 30 min [29]. Samples were then washed and resuspended in PBS for flow cytometric analysis. Analysis gates were set on the live lymphocyte population based on forward and side scatter characteristics. All flow cytometric analysis was performed on a FACS Canto II flow cytometer (BD Biosciences). A total of 20,000 events were acquired and analyzed using FlowJo software (Tree Star, Ashland, OR). Cultured autologous tumor cells were washed, pelleted, and lysed in RIPA buffer (25 mM Tris–HCl, 0.1% SDS, 1% Triton X-100, 1% sodiumdeoxycholate, 0.

In the field of medicine, TASKI Protasan (TP) and TASKI Combatan

In the field of medicine, TASKI Protasan (TP) and TASKI Combatan (TC) are in use as effective compounds against bacteria, virus and fungi including human immunodeficiency

and hepatitis virus.6 While wards and corridors of hospital; research and development institutions have to be disinfected daily to keep up hygiene a wide spectrum of microorganisms and accurate dosing of medical disinfectants is required. Hence, the effectiveness of TP and TC on B. mori and NPV were examined to corroborate the use of Benzalkonium Chloride (BC), one of the components of TP and TC, as a common preservative in ophthalmic solution 7 and disinfectants in healthcare centers and food processing industries. 8 JAK inhibitor The silkworm, Bombyx mori strain NB4D2 and nucleopolyhedrovirus derived from grasserie diseased larvae were used. Commercially available TP and TC were procured from Qualigens Fine Chemicals, Mumbai.9 The compositions are TP – benzalkonium chloride (11.05% w/w) and nonionic surfactants; TC OSI-744 – benzalkonium chloride (10% w/w), polymeric biguanide hydrochloride (12% w/w), formaldehyde (15% w/w) and ethane dialdehyde (30% w/w). After standardizing the dosage through base experiments 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0% of TC and TP was considered for further studies. Accordingly, healthy silkworm

larvae in three replications with 50 larvae each in all the treatments including control were maintained. Mulberry leaves treated with 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0% of TP and TC for 5 min, which dried under shade were fed to fifth instar newly exuviated larvae and continued until spinning at 48 h intervals as one of the feeds per day. A control batch was fed with mulberry leaves immersed in distilled water. The quantum of leaves fed to all the batches of silkworm larvae was uniform. Haemolymph drawn from the larvae into a tube containing phenylthiourea was centrifuged at 3600 rpm for 5 min.10 and 11 The sediment containing polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB’s) washed twice in 0.85 N NaCl and centrifuged at 3000 rpm.

The sediment suspended in 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.6) was centrifuged at 3600 rpm for 20 min. Finally, the suspension was mixed with an equal volume of glycerol and centrifuged at 10,800 rpm for 30 min. The polyhedral bodies were re-suspended in distilled water Idoxuridine and strength of the stock was determined using haemocytometer as follows, Formula: concentration = X × 100 (where, X is the number of PIB’s), For example: X = A + B + C + D + E Total PIB’s X = 49 + 60 `+ 67 + 51 + 65; X = 292. Therefore, the concentration of primary stock was 292 × 100 = 2,92,000 (2.92 × 105 PIB’s/μl). (Standards: LC25 = 89 PIB’s/μl, LC50 = 266 PIB’s/μl, LC75 = 795 PIB’s/μl, LC95 = 3864 PIB’s/μl). i.eLC50 =266  2.92 × 105=91.09×105=9.1×105=9.1μlofPIB’s LC50 = 9.1 μl of PIB’s suspension to 990.9 μl of distilled water.