The outcome variable of interest was 7-day smoking cessation at each timepoint (smoking vs. quit). Participants who dropped out of the intervention were coded as smoking, whereas participants who were transferred to another facility selleckchem Nutlin-3a or released after the intervention ended had their last value (e.g., quit or smoking) carried forward for subsequent follow-up points. All other missing data (e.g., return to court, segregation) during follow-up were coded as smoking. For this sample, we used a GEE model with the following explanatory variables: treatment (wait-list control = 0, group/nicotine replacement = 1), race (Black = 0, White = 1), and time (more than 15 timepoints). We also were interested in the effect of treatment over time and how treatment effects varied by race.
Age, education, average number of cigarettes per day, change in smoking behavior since coming to prison, and prior mental health treatment were added as covariates. As a secondary analysis, we examined the impact of smoking mentholated cigarettes on treatment outcomes and controlled for baseline age, education, average number of cigarettes per day, change in smoking behavior since coming to prison, and prior mental health treatment and differences between White and Black smokers. Thus, the second model only examined individuals who received treatment (N = 233). Both models were fit with an exchangeable working correlation. A p value less than .05 was used for all analyses to indicate significance. Results Racial differences on smoking history and behavior Table 2 compares baseline smoking characteristics across racial groups.
Compared with Black smokers, White smokers were younger when they initiated smoking and when they began daily smoking and therefore had smoked for a greater number of years. Whites smoked more cigarettes per day, had a higher maximum lifetime number of cigarettes smoked, and had higher expired-CO levels. No differences were found between White and Black smokers on time since last cigarette, number of past quit attempts, longest period of time quit, last time Drug_discovery they made a quit attempt, difficulty of their last quit attempt, or likelihood that they would continue to smoke after their release from prison. Table 2. Baseline smoking characteristics (N = 233) White smokers reported a higher percentage of family members who smoked cigarettes. They also reported more family members with a smoking-related illness or death, but we found no differences between the two racial groups on personal medical problems related to their smoking. Black participants spent more money on cigarettes and were more likely to state that they wanted to quit smoking within the next 30 days.