However, scFvs typically show low thermal stability that limits their biomedical and biotechnological applications. In this study, we examined the thermal stability of the human and murine vascular endothelial growth factor antibody scFv fragment by molecular dynamics simulations. A consistent observation was the dissociation of the light-chain (VL) and heavy-chain (VH) domains and loss of the native
structures of both domains in the simulations at the elevated temperatures. The stability-limiting structural elements in the protein were revealed from the detailed analyses on the native contacts. We found that dissociation of the VL-VH domains was the first event leading to the unfolding of the native structure of the protein and the disruption of the VL-VH selleck kinase inhibitor interface was largely due to the break of the interfacial hydrophobic and aromatic interactions while the hydrogen-bonding interaction between Gln38 in VL and Gln39 in VH remained. Within the beta-barrel structure of the VL and VH domains, beta-strands beta 6, beta 2 and beta 11 appeared to be the least stable.
In addition, we found that the VH domain was more thermally resistant than the VL domain. Based on these findings, we discussed potential strategies to improve the stability of this therapeutically important scFv fragment.”
“Norovirus Aurora Kinase inhibitor genotype II.3 (GII.3) strains are a major cause of sporadic gastroenteritis. Intergenic recombination between the capsid and RNA-dependent Orotic acid RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes is common and results in the acquisition of an alternative
RdRp genotype. This study aimed to explore the evolution of the GII. 3 capsid gene, focusing on the influence of intergenic recombination. The capsid genes from six GII. 3 norovirus strains, collected from Australian children between 2001 and 2010, were sequenced and aligned with 66 GII. 3 capsid sequences from GenBank, spanning 1975 to 2010. The GII. 3 capsid gene evolved at a rate of 4.16 x 10(-3) to 6.97 x 10(-3) nucleotide substitutions/site/year from 1975 to 2010 and clustered into five temporally sequential lineages. Clustering of the GII. 3 capsid gene sequences was associated with intergenic recombination and switches between RdRp genotypes GII.3, GII.a, GII.b, GII.12, and an undefined ancestral RdRp. Comparison of the substitution rate of the GII. 3 and GII.b RdRps suggested that RdRp switching allows a higher evolutionary rate, leading to increased genetic diversity and adaptability. Alignment of GII. 3 capsid sequences revealed 36 lineage-specific conserved amino acid substitutions, four of which were under positive selection. Many conserved substitutions were within predicted antibody binding regions and close to host attachment factor binding sites. In conclusion, evolution of GII.