16 They adjusted for differences in case-mix population data between the studies and subgroups used and were able identify some key conclusions: when comparing HD and PD as initial
dialysis therapies, PD is associated with equal or improved survival among younger patients without diabetes In the absence of properly conducted randomized controlled trials, Vonesh et al.16 Epigenetics inhibitor suggests that a clearer picture of survival benefit according to modality is demonstrated when examining the large registry studies with extensive subgroup analyses. Registry data studies such as that of Liem et al.4 analysed nearly 17 000 patients in the Netherlands, stratified for age and diabetic status. The survival advantage with PD was confined to those patients <50 years and without diabetes as the cause of their renal disease and disappeared with time (>15 months). In patients 50 years and older with diabetes, PD was associated with worse survival after 15 months, but there was no particular difference in survival between modalities in the first 14 months. Heaf et al.12 also found that the survival advantage disappeared for those in older cohorts Afatinib and with diabetes. These results are also supported
by Fenton et al.5 and Vonesh and Moran.3 The Fenton et al.5 Canadian group studied nearly 12 000 patients from their national database. A decreased mortality in the PD group was less pronounced among those with diabetes and over 65 years of age. The survival advantage in the PD group was also limited to the first 2 years after initiation. Vonesh and Moran also found PD patients under the age of 50 years to have a significantly lower risk of death than those treated with HD, whether or not they had diabetes.3 When observing patient cohorts with CHF, Stack et al.14 found
that patients treated initially with PD had significantly higher adjusted mortality compared with HD after 6–24 months of follow up (RR 1.47 at 24 months). Similar to the previously tuclazepam mentioned studies, the patient cohort without CHF experienced lower mortality on PD for the first 6–12 months regardless of whether or not they had diabetes. Stack et al.14 did not stratify for age. Ganesh et al.15 also found those cohorts with CAD had worse survival on PD than HD, but an initial survival advantage if they did not have CAD. The patients with diabetes had significantly poorer survival on PD compared with HD, regardless of coronary artery status. The results were not interpreted for age-related differences. The report by Locatelli et al.13 from Italy was the only registry data study of more than 4000 new patients that after stratifying for age, gender, established CVD and diabetes, and did not reveal any significant difference in survival comparing modalities at least until the follow-up period of 20 months post initiation. Of particular interest is a retrospective cohort study performed by Panagoutsos et al.