2) Cladistics 1989, 5:164–166 49 Hansen DS, Skov R, Benedi JV,

2). Cladistics 1989, 5:164–166. 49. Hansen DS, Skov R, Benedi JV, Sperling V, Kolmos HJ: Klebsiella typing: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in comparison with O:K-serotyping. Clin Microbiol Infect 2002, 8:397–404.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that there are no competing interests. Authors’ contributions ECV and MP provided the Kp13 isolate and performed bacterial identification. ALG, MFN and ATRV conceived the pyrosequencing strategy. Annotation and bioinformatics analyses were performed by LGPA, LFGZ, PIPR, RCP, ACG and MFN. The manuscript was prepared by PIPR, RCP,

ACG and MFN. All authors read buy PU-H71 and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Knowledge about types of secretion pathways in prokaryotes has proportionally increased with the number of complete genomes deposited in the nucleotide databases. Moreover, several studies of secretion systems have been conducted with the purpose of understanding the biological mechanisms involved in the association between microorganisms and their hosts, since several secretion systems in prokaryotes should be MM-102 concentration mediating the mutualistic symbiotic or pathogenic relationships. Secretion systems have been classified into seven major

evolutionarily and functionally related groups, termed types I-VII [1–6]. Type IV Secretion FG-4592 concentration system (T4SS) is one of the most functionally diverse, both in terms of the transported substrate (DNA, proteins, or DNA-protein complex) and the projected recipients (receiver cells or extracellular medium) [7]. According to this high range, three types of T4SS have been described: (i) the conjugation system (translocates DNA-protein substrates to recipient cells via a contact-dependent process) [8]; (ii) the effector translocator system (delivers proteins or other effector molecules to eukaryotic target cells) [9]; and (iii) the DNA release or uptake system (translocates DNA to or from the extracellular milieu) [10]. To accomplish that transport, Miconazole the system comprises multisubunit cell-envelope-spanning structures, which form a secretion

channel and often a pilus. Moreover, other proteins not needed for the assembly of the channel are required for the proper function of the system [11]. Most studies on T4SS have been carried out in some Gram-negative bacteria used as models: (i) the archetypal VirB/D4 encoded by pTi plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens[12]; (ii) the Helicobacter pylori ComB that secretes DNA to the extracellular milieu [13]; (iii) Tra/Trb encoded by F plasmid of Escherichia coli[14]; and (iv) Dot/Icm identified in Legionella spp [15] and Coxiella burnetti[16] and (v) Tfc in genomic islands of Haemophilus spp [17]. Currently, there is information on a few T4SS subunits of Gram-positive bacteria, which are mainly representative of conjugation systems [18]. Also, a small number of archaeal conjugation systems have been recently described, such as the conjugative plasmids of thermophilic crenarchaeal Sulfolobus spp [19].

These products are deleterious for host health

These products are deleterious for host health Caspase Inhibitor VI [22]. Figure 5 presents the cumulative total production of BCFA. BCFA are produced in small amounts for every test variation compared to the SCFA (about 20 to 40 fold lower). Total BCFA production was highest when probiotic was administered after clindamycin. However, when Clindamycin and probiotics were administered at the same time, the BCFA production was decreased. In the Selleckchem Go6983 experiments in which Clindamycin was administered (the first 7 days), the BCFA production was comparable to the control. Therefore the decreasing effect probably was induced by the use of

probiotics. When probiotics were administered after a week treatment with Clindamycin, this decreasing effect in BCFA production was not observed. Figure 5 Cumulative production for the branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) iso-butyrate and iso-valerate during the different experiments in TIM-2: (A) Clindamycin for 7 days (d 1-7 a) followed by VSL#3 (d 8-14 p); (B) Clindamycin + VSL#3 for 7 days (d 1-7 a + p); (C) no therapy group for 7 days (controls). Figure 5D shows the comparison of absolute amounts (in mmol) at the end of

each 7 days period. Figure 6 shows the cumulative total production of ammonia. For ammonia the production was decreased between day 3 and 7 in the test experiments compared to the control. In the experiments PF-6463922 chemical structure in which Clindamycin was administered, as well as in which Clindamycin was administered together with probiotics, the ammonia production was reduced just as observed for the BCFA. Figure 6 Cumulative PAK5 production for ammonia during the different experiments in TIM-2 (A) (Clindamycin for 7 days (d 1-7 a) followed by VSL#3 (d 8-14 p); Clindamycin + VSL#3 for 7 days (d 1-7 a + p); no therapy group for 7 days (controls). Figure 6B shows the comparison of absolute amounts (in mmol) at the end of each 7 days period. Composition of the microbiota To determine the effects of Clindamycin and the probiotics on the composition of the microbiota, the I-chip platform was used. The

I-chip contained roughly 400 probes, some for group-level detection (e.g Bifidobacterium genus) and some for the detection of individual species (e.g. Bifidobacterium longum). Some groups and species were covered by more than one probe. In all cases the hybridization to these multiple probes correlated very well. However, not al probes gave a signal above background noise, which was expected, as not all microorganisms are present above the level of detection of the method (approximately 107 CFU/g). Due to the different nature of each probe (different sequence), hybridization intensity does not necessarily reflect abundance. Difference in GC-content results in different hybridization efficiencies.

4) In addition, 56 % of bachelor’s programs had an arts and huma

4). In addition, 56 % of bachelor’s programs had an arts and humanities course in their core offerings, compared to only 22 % of the master’s programs (Fig. 4).

In contrast, only 33 % of the bachelor’s programs had a research course component within their core, while 89 % of master’s programs featured selleck screening library research. Core course subjects Among the core courses, each disciplinary category contained a number of course subject areas (Table 1), with many categories dominated by one or two Sotrastaurin order common subjects (Fig. 4). In the sustainability category, an introductory sustainability course was present in 81 % of bachelor’s and 85 % of master’s programs. In the core course category of applied sustainability, the topics offered ranged widely (Table 1), but the urban sustainability and energy core course subject areas were the most common among bachelor’s programs (present in 41 and 33 % of the

programs respectively), and the climate (41 %) and enterprise (37 %) core course subject areas were the most common among the master’s programs. Seven master’s programs with a core course in applied PF-01367338 chemical structure sustainability focusing on climate contributes to the high weighting for this subject at the master’s level; if we excluded the climate course from the Leeds University programs in the analysis, the climate, energy, water, and industry core course subject areas were roughly equally represented (~20 %) among the master’s programs. Within the natural science category, the environmental science and ecology core course subject areas were the most common among the bachelor’s programs

(present in 78 and 52 % of the programs, respectively) (Fig. 4a). At the master’s level, no single natural science core course subject area was found among more than 20 % of the programs (Fig. 4b); climate science was the most common (present in 19 % of the programs, although all of these five programs were within the seven different sustainability degree programs at Leeds University). Within the social science category, CYTH4 the most common core course subjects in bachelor’s programs were economics (59 %) and policy and governance (56 %). For master’s programs, the most common core course subjects were policy and governance (78 %) and development (44 %). Reading lists Of our total sample of 54 programs, 83 % (45 programs) featured a core course in sustainability. At some universities, the same core course was shared between more than one program, resulting in a total of 32 unique core sustainability courses. We contacted the instructors of these 32 core sustainability courses, and received 25 responses with syllabi, 22 of which included reading lists. The 22 courses with reading lists in our sample are core courses in a total of 32 programs (those marked with an asterisk in Table 2; those which share a core course with other programs at the same university share a letter).

Liu PT et al (2006) Toll-like receptor triggering

of a vi

Liu PT et al (2006) Toll-like receptor triggering

of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science 311(5768):1770–1773PubMedCrossRef 17. Pettifor JM, Ross FP, Solomon L (1978) Seasonal variation in serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations in elderly South African patients with fractures of femoral neck. Br Med J 1(6116):826–827PubMedCrossRef 18. Schoenmakers I, Goldberg GR, Prentice A (2008) Barasertib order Abundant sunshine and vitamin D deficiency. Br J Nutr 99(6):1171–1173PubMedCrossRef 19. National Department of Health South Africa (2010) Clinical guidelines for the management of HIV & AIDS in adults and adolescents. http://​www.​sahivsoc.​org/​upload/​documents/​Clinical_​Guidelines_​for_​the_​Management_​of_​HIV_​AIDS_​in_​Adults_​Adolescents_​2010.​pdf 20. WHO (2006) W.H.O. BMI classification 21. Poopedi MA, Norris SA, Pettifor JM (2011) Factors influencing the vitamin D status https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ink128.html of 10-year-old urban South African children. Public Health Nutr 14(2):334–339PubMedCrossRef 22. Prentice A, Goldberg GR, Schoenmakers buy SNX-5422 I (2008) Vitamin D across the lifecycle:physiology and biomarkers. Am J Clin Nutr 88:500S–506SPubMed 23. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2007) Update on

vitamin D. Norwich: TSO (The Stationery Office) 24. Institute of Medicine (2010) Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D: National Academies Press 25. Van Den Bout-Van Den Beukel CJ et al (2008) Vitamin D deficiency among HIV type 1-infected individuals in the Netherlands: effects of antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24(11):1375–1382PubMedCrossRef 26. Kruger HS et al (2011) Overweight among children decreased, but obesity prevalence remained high among women in South Africa, 1999–2005. Public Health Nutr 2012 Apr;15(4):594–9 27. Compston JE et al (2011) Obesity is not protective against fracture in postmenopausal women: GLOW. Am J Med 124(11):1043–1050PubMedCrossRef”
“Erratum Selleck C59 to: Osteoporos Int (2013) 24:1697–1705 DOI 10.1007/s00198-012-2232-2

The Supplementary Online Table 1 (Incremental mean costs up to 5 years following non-traumatic fracture) was omitted from the original publication due to an oversight.”
“Erratum to: Osteoporos Int DOI 10.1007/s00198-013-2366-x In the abstract, it should have read “Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in each site and latitude correlation were very high (r = −0.88; p = 0.02).” instead of “Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in each site and latitude correlation were very high (r = −0.88; p < 0.0001).” This p value refers to the correlation between all measurements of 25(OH)vitamin D and latitude. The complete corrected abstract is reproduced here. In the results section, it should have read “The correlation between all 25(OH)D measurements and latitude was significant (r = −0.18, p < 0.0001).” instead of “The correlation between all 25(OH)D measurements and latitude was significant (r = −0.3, p < 0.0001).

In addition, heavy metal resistance genes are often carried on pl

In addition, heavy metal resistance genes are often carried on plasmids [7]. Toxin genes carried on S. aureus plasmids include exotoxin B (ETB), a toxin selleck compound that causes blistering of the skin, and the toxins EntA, EntG, EntJ and EntP [8]. The classification of plasmids has historically been determined

by incompatibility groups based on the finding that two plasmids with the same replication (Rep) proteins cannot be stably maintained in the same cell [9, 10]. More recently this method has been developed based on the sequence of the rep genes [11]. The sequence of a large number of plasmids isolated from S. aureus has now been released into the public domain; however there is currently no clear understanding of how virulence genes and resistance genes are linked to rep genes and plasmids. Such knowledge is fundamental in understanding the spread of resistance and virulence. Additional barriers to the spread of plasmids between bacteria are

the restriction-modification (R-M) systems. Two systems have GSK126 molecular weight been described in S. aureus; the type III R-M system protects bacteria against foreign DNA originating from other bacterial species [12], whilst the type I (SauI) R-M system protects bacteria against DNA originating from isolates of PI3K inhibitor different S. aureus lineages [13]. The type I RM system consists of a restriction subunit (HsdR) and a modification subunit (HsdM) that can cleave and methylate DNA, and a specificity subunit (HsdS) that determines the specificity of the restriction and modification. Tolmetin Each lineage of S. aureus encodes unique sequence specificity

hsdS genes; and this means that DNA originating from different lineages by HGT is detected as foreign DNA and is digested, whilst DNA originating from the same lineage is detected as self DNA and remains undigested. Therefore, exchange of MGEs between lineages is infrequent [13]. Human S. aureus can be grouped into 10 major clonal complex (CC) lineages and many minor lineages [14]. Each lineage has a unique but highly conserved combination of genes encoding surface and secreted proteins [15]. However, there is much variation in the carriage of MGEs within a lineage suggesting that HGT is frequent within a S. aureus lineage [16, 17]. Our specific aims of this study were (i) to extend the rep family classification to 243 sequenced S. aureus plasmids, (ii) to characterise the distribution of rep genes amongst the sequenced plasmids, (iii) to assess the distribution of 45 resistance and virulence genes between plasmids, and (iv) to investigate the distribution of plasmids between 254 S. aureus isolates from 20 different lineages using microarray analysis. The overall aim was to better understand the dissemination of plasmids, resistance and virulence genes in S. aureus populations. We report 39 unique plasmid groups each with a unique combination of rep genes, and demonstrate that resistance and virulence genes are associated with plasmid groups and with lineage.

10 ml samples were centrifuged, washed with 10 ml RN media and 10

10 ml samples were centrifuged, washed with 10 ml RN media and 10 ml H2O. Pellets were resuspended in 100 μl H2O and lipids extracted through the addition of 360 μl of chloroform:methanol:HCl (1/2/0.02) and incubated at room temperature for 20 minutes. 120 μl chloroform and 120 μl 2 M KCl were added to separate

phases and after centrifugation, the organic phase was removed and radioactivity quantified by scintillation counting. Thin-layer chromatography Radiolabelled lipids were analyzed by 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. The 1-dimensional selleck system used to separate phospholipids C188-9 from diacylglycerol and fatty acid was Silica Gel G layers developed with chloroform:methanol:acetic acid (98/2/1) and visualized using Bioscan imaging detector. The 2-dimensional

system also employed Silica Gel G layers and was developed first with chloroform:methanol:water (65/25/4) and secondly tetrahydrofuran/dimethoxyethane/methanol/4 M ammonium hydroxide (10/6/4/1). The resulting thin-layer plate exposed I-BET-762 cell line to a PhosphoImager screen and visualized using a Typhoon 9200. Lipid mass spectrometry Mass spectrometry of phospholipids was performed using a Finnigan TSQ Quantum (Thermo Electron, San Jose, CA) triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Samples were prepared in 50:50 (v/v) chloroform:methanol. The instrument was operated in the negative ion mode. Ion source Adenosine parameters were as follows: spray voltage

of 3,000 V, capillary temperature of 270°C, capillary offset of 35 V, and the tube lens offset was set by infusion of polytyrosine tuning and calibration solution (Thermo Electron, San Jose, CA) in the electrospray mode. Acquisition parameters were as follows: full scan, scan range 600 – 100 m/z, scan time 0.5 s, peak width Q1 0.7 FWHM. Instrument control and data acquisition was performed with the Finnigan™ Xcalibur™ software (Thermo Electron, San Jose, CA). Mass spectrometry malonyl-CoA measurement Cultures of strain PDJ28 were grown in RN medium supplemented with 0.1% glycerol to OD600 = 0.6. Cells were pelleted and washed with 50 ml RN medium to remove glycerol and used to inoculate RN medium with and without 0.1% glycerol. Cultures were grown for 120 minutes and harvested at room temperature. Cells were extracted using the Bligh and Dyer method [27], and 50 pmol of [13C3]malonyl-CoA (Stable Isotope Products; Isotec) was added. The aqueous phase was applied to a 100-mg 2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl functionalized silica gel column (Supelco) equilibrated with 2% acetic acid in methanol/water (1:1) [28]. The column was washed two times with 1 ml of equilibration buffer and 1 ml water. CoAs were eluted with 1 ml of 50% acetonitrile containing 15 mM ammonium hydroxide. Mass spectrometry of acyl-CoA was performed using a Finnigan TSQ Quantum (Thermo Electron) triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer [29].

OLO is a weaker inhibitor of

CDKs than ROSC [14] and ther

OLO is a weaker inhibitor of

CDKs than ROSC [14] and therefore we used it at a higher dosage. As expected, ROSC stronger reduced the number of living cells than OLO. Moreover, transformed PKA activator cells established from primary rat cells isolated at 13.5 gd (189/111 cells) were more sensitive to the inhibition of CDKs than their counterparts generated from 15.5 gd RECs (173/1022) (Fig. 5). Exposure of 189/111 cells to ROSC at a final concentration of 20 µM reduced the number of living cells by approximately 30% and the number of 173/1022 cells by approximately 15%. The anti-proliferative effect of ROSC at higher dosage was very highly significant in both cell lines after treatment for 24 h (Fig. 5) and 48 h (data not shown). Fig. 5 The

pharmacological inhibitors of CDKs stronger affect transformed rat cells established from primary cells isolated at 13.5 gd than from cells isolated at 15.5 gd. Transformed cells were plated into 96 well microtiter plates (two plates for each condition). One day after plating, cells were exposed to drugs for 24 h or for 48 h (not shown). Thereafter, the number of viable cells was determined using CellTiterGlo. Tests were performed at least in quadruplicate. Acadesine Luminescence was measured in the Wallac 1420 Victor, a multilabel, multitask plate counter. Each point represents the mean ± SD (bars) of replicates from three independent experiments. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism and significance levels were evaluated using T test Inhibition of Caspase Inhibitor VI mw c-Ha-Ras Processing Sensitizes Transformed Rat Cells Established from oRECs to CDK Inhibitors Further, we addressed the question whether the activity status of overexpressed oncogenic c-Ha-Ras might have any effect on the susceptibility of transformed rat cells to tested CDKs inhibitors. To gain full biological activity, Ras proteins after

de novo synthesis have to be stepwise modified. Isoprenylation, catalyzed by farnesyl protein transferase (FPTase), is the first reaction in this series of events. Both cell lines were treated for 24 h with L-744,832, ADP ribosylation factor a pharmacological inhibitor of FPTase (FTI) alone or in combination with OLO or ROSC. Then the number of living cells was determined immediately or alternatively, medium was changed and cells were post-incubated for 24 h in a drug-free medium or with FTI. The inhibition of isoprenylation had a stronger anti-proliferative effect on 173/1022 than on 189/111 cells (Fig. 6). Addition of FTI to ROSC enhanced its inhibitory effect on 173/1022 cells. The strongest reduction of the number of viable 173/1022 cells occurred after post-incubation for 24 h in the presence of FTI (Fig. 6). Fig. 6 Inhibition of c-Ha-Ras processing sensitizes transformed rat cells established from oRECs to CDK inhibitors.

Host-interaction proteins Many of the virulence factors show wide

Host-interaction proteins Many of the virulence factors show wide divergence between hspEAsia and hpEurope, most likely because of co-evolution with the host. We anticipate that the list of well-diverged genes (Table 6) is enriched for host-interaction and potential virulence genes. We detected positively-selected amino-acid changes in two virulence factors: cagA and vacA (Table 7). Many OMP families showed loss of one of their resident

loci (hopMN, babABC, sabAB), whereas one family (oipA) showed duplication of its locus. Some OMP genes showed internal deletions (vacA-2) or interallelic homologous recombination (hopMN). A group-specific repertoire was seen for other OMP genes (homB, hopZ and hopQ), for other criteria. We also found substantial hspEAsia-hpEurope divergence in many OMPs (Table 5). The OMPs play important roles in host interaction such as click here adhesion to the host cells and induction of immune responses [26]. For example, OipA induces IL-8 from host cells [70]. Systematic decay of OMP genes occurred during adaptation of H. pylori to a new host Torin 1 clinical trial of large felines, generating the new species of H. acinonychis [36]. Hence, the above OMP changes might reflect selection and/or fine regulation in host interaction, and more specifically,

may help avoid the host immune system. At least two OMPs show evidence for positive selection (Table 7). We do not yet know whether these OMP changes are related to immune response or adhesin activity. Lewis antigen mimicry is important for gastric colonization and adhesion. The mimicry affects innate immune recognition, inflammatory response, and T-cell polarization. Long-term infection by H. pylori might induce autoreactive anti-Lewis antigen antibodies [107]. Divergence in transferase genes for LPS biosynthesis may have resulted from co-evolution with the host immune system and could be related to Ergoloid changes in Lewis

antigens in human populations. For example, the Le(a+b+) phenotype is 17-AAG almost absent in Caucasian persons whereas it occurs with a higher frequency in the Asian population [108]. This might be related to differences in pathogenicity and adaptation [109]. Changes in transporter genes, the loss of a putative amino acid utilization gene, divergence in a branched chain amino acid metabolism gene, differences in acetate metabolism genes, and divergence in motility and chemotaxis genes could also be related to host interaction, because these are related to the stomach environment. An interesting question is if these changes are related to variation in human diets. Electron transfer Several key electron transfer components were diverged between hspEAsia and hpEurope. The multiple and drastic changes in redox metabolism were unexpected. The systematic decay of all Mo-related genes through mutations in all (6/6) hspEAsia strains was the most striking. We do not know whether our findings reflect the biased environmental occurrence of Mo or the dietary habits of human populations.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2948–2952CrossRefPubMed 40 Kwek EB, K

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2948–2952CrossRefPubMed 40. Kwek EB, Koh JS, Howe TS (2008) More on atypical PD-0332991 in vitro fractures of the femoral diaphysis. N Engl J Med 359:316–317CrossRefPubMed 41. Lenart BA, Lorich DG, Lane JM (2008) Atypical fractures of the femoral diaphysis in postmenopausal women taking alendronate. N Engl J Med 358:1304–1306CrossRefPubMed 42. Leung F, Lau T-W, To M, Luk K-K, Kung A (2010) Atypical femoral diaphyseal and subtrochanteric fractures and their association with bisphosphonates. BMJ Case Reports. doi:10.​1136/​bcr.​10.​2008.​1073 43. Brandser EA, Buckwalter JA (1996) Imaging find more studies for diagnosing stress and

insufficiency fractures. Iowa Orthop J 16:70–78PubMed 44. Lunsjo K, Ceder L, Tidermark J, Hamberg P, Larsson BE, Ragnarsson B, Knebel RW, Allvin I, Hjalmars K, Norberg S, Fornander P, Hauggaard A, Stigsson L (1999) Extramedullary fixation of 107 subtrochanteric fractures: a randomized multicenter trial of the Medoff sliding plate versus 3 other screw-plate systems. Acta Orthop Scand 70:459–466CrossRefPubMed 45. Whitelaw GP, Segal D, Sanzone CF, Ober NS, Hadley N (1990) Unstable intertrochanteric/subtrochanteric fractures

of the femur. Clin Orthop Relat Res 252:238–245PubMed 46. Nieves JW, Bilezikian selleck JP, Lane JM, Einhorn TA, Wang Y, Steinbuch M, Cosman F (2010) Fragility fractures of the hip and femur: incidence and patient oxyclozanide characteristics. Osteoporos Int 21:299–408CrossRef 47. Glennon DA (2009) Subtrochanteric stress fractures in six patients on long term bisphosphonate therapy: a case series. Bone 44:S68–S98CrossRef 48. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2010) Final appraisal

determination. Alendronate, etidronate, risedronate, raloxifene and strontium ranelate for the primary prevention of osteoporotic fragility fractures in postmenopausal women (amended). NICE technology appraisal guidance 160 (amended). http://​www.​nice.​org.​uk/​nicemedia/​pdf/​TA160guidance.​pdf. Accessed 23 Sep 2010 49. Johnell O, Kanis JA (2006) An estimate of the worldwide prevalence and disability associated with osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporos Int 17:1726–1733CrossRefPubMed 50. Giusti A, Hamdy NA, Papapoulos SE (2010) Atypical fractures of the femur and bisphosphonate therapy. A systematic review of case/case series studies. Bone 47:169–180CrossRefPubMed 51. Husada G, Libberecht K, Peeters T, Populaire J (2005) Bilateral mid-diaphyseal femoral stress fractures in the elderly. Eur J Trauma 31:68–71CrossRef 52. Schneider JP (2006) Should bisphosphonates be continued indefinitely? An unusual fracture in a healthy woman on long-term alendronate. Geriatrics 61:31–33PubMed 53. Armamento-Villareal R, Napoli N, Panwar V, Novack D (2006) Suppressed bone turnover during alendronate therapy for high-turnover osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 355:2048–2050CrossRefPubMed 54.

Graphene, which consists of monolayers of sp 2 hybrid carbon atom

Graphene, which consists of monolayers of sp 2 hybrid carbon atoms, has been the most attractive carbon material in recent years [3–6]. Because of carbon-carbon covalent bonds, a graphene sheet exhibits extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties, including high intrinsic mobility (15,000~20,000 cm2/Vs) [7], a stretchable nature, and high thermal conductivity (approximately 5,300 W/mK) [8]. Moreover, with high optical transmittance and high chemical stability, graphene is a promising building block of window material for optoelectronic devices. In addition to graphene, transparent ZnO NRs with a wide bandgap are good candidates for use in next-generation electronics

and optoelectronics [9–13]. Many methods have been developed to prepare ZnO NRs, including chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [14], vapor–liquid-solid epitaxy [15], and pulsed laser deposition [16]. However, these techniques are only applicable Selleck HM781-36B to limited substrate sizes and require high process temperatures, which are prohibitive for many practical applications. On the other hand, the www.selleckchem.com/products/th-302.html hydrothermal process is OSI-906 cost regarded as a promising technique for the synthesis of ZnO NRs because it has several

advantages, including the fact that it is a low-cost and low-temperature process that provides wafer-scale uniformity and high growth rates. Therefore, the hybridization of 2D graphene with 1D ZnO NRs has recently been reported for multifunctional applications, such as gas sensors [17], light-emitting diodes [18], solar cells [19], and piezoelectric nanogenerators

[20]. In addition, ZnO is an excitingly attractive material for use as a transparent conducting oxide (TCO), but ZnO cannot solitarily exist as a TCO because of its intrinsic point defects [21, 22]. To overcome this problem, increasing the carrier concentration or carrier mobility is effectively equivalent to decreasing the sheet resistance. In our opinion, ZnO NR/graphene HSs have characteristics that are of particular interest to the development of such structures for use as TCOs. In this work, 1D ZnO NRs were synthesized by hydrothermal method onto a 2D graphene sheet to form an HS. High transmittance over the visible light region was obtained after synthesizing the ZnO NRs, and the sample displayed Ibrutinib chemical structure excellent mechanical properties after bending with a small radius. Notably, we essayed a Hall measurement of the HS, which consisted of ZnO NRs/graphene on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Methods Each graphene sheet was prepared on a Cu foil by CVD and then spin-coated with a protective layer of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The PMMA/graphene/Cu foil sample was immersed into an FeCl3/HCl solution for etching to strip the Cu foil. After etching, we retrieved the sample from the FeCl3/HCl solution, transferred it onto the PET substrate, and cleaned it with deionized water.