, 2011) The G allele of MT2A rs10636 abolishes a binding site fo

, 2011). The G allele of MT2A rs10636 abolishes a binding site for DREAM, a calcium-regulated transcriptional repressor ( Carrion et al., 1999); and creates one for EKLF, which is involved in transcriptional regulation in erythroids

( Donze et al., 1995). The G allele of MT2A rs28366003 abolishes a binding site for MTF1, a transcription factor that is known to induce gene expression in response to Cd. The frequency of the rs11076161 A allele among Europeans (0.26) is estimated to be lower than in the Chinese population, whereas it is higher among Africans (0.52) (www.ncbi.nlm.nih/projects/SNP), suggesting that differences in susceptibility to renal toxicity between different populations could be expected. The finding of a relationship between B-Cd and MT1A rs11076161 makes it difficult to distinguish whether the genotype affects the Cd body burden, or if it has a specific effect

on Cd in blood. Genotype Metformin specific expression of MT1A caused by presence/absence of a ZBTB16 transcription signal could be the underlying mechanism that explains why AA/AG carriers are at higher risk to develop affected kidney function upon exposure to Cd. More studies will be needed to verify the effect of rs11076161 genotypes on Cd-induced renal toxicity. An ideal way would be to obtain cell lines that differ in rs11076161 genotype and study their cadmium sensitivity. Cetuximab The MT2A rs28366003 genotype seemed to have a slight effect on the B-Cd levels, which was more evident in the low exposure group. However, when considering B-Cd in tertiles, there was no effect of this SNP on the Cd concentrations and we could not

support evidence from other studies. The variant genotype GG was associated with increased concentrations of Cd in the kidney tissue from autopsies ( Kayaalti et al., 2010 and Kita almost et al., 2006) and blood ( Kayaalti et al., 2011). Kita et al. (2006) demonstrated a reduced expression of this G variant in response to Cd and Zn exposure, and thus, one could expect that G carriers would suffer more toxic effects of Cd. However, the latter could not be supported in our study. Rather the opposite was observed; G carriers had lower levels of UNAG in urine. In conclusion, this study identifies that the rs11076161 G → A exchange of MT1A influences the toxicity of Cd on renal function: AA genotype may be more sensitive to cadmium toxicity than those with the GG genotype. It suggests that MT1A variation may be an additional useful indicator to monitor for prediction of the risk of renal dysfunction in certain populations. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. This study was supported by the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, and The European Union within the Sixth Framework Programme for RTD (“PHIME” contract no FOOD-CT-2006-016253.

For example, one recent fMRI study [38••] suggests that the hippo

For example, one recent fMRI study [38••] suggests that the hippocampus supports the transfer of monetary value across related experiences through additional recruitment of reward regions. The researchers CAL-101 clinical trial showed greater reactivation of prior related knowledge during encoding

of new reward information for stimuli that showed more evidence of subsequent preference shifts, a behavioral index of value transfer. Hippocampal–striatal functional coupling was also associated with value-related preference changes [38••], suggesting that hippocampus may interact with domain-specific regions (e.g., striatum in value learning tasks) in service of integration. Consistent with a domain-general role for hippocampus in memory integration, rodent work [39] has found that the hippocampus was necessary for updating a known goal location with new value information. These updated memories may then be transferred to neocortex, as mPFC was necessary for retaining the updated www.selleckchem.com/products/ldk378.html knowledge to support performance on the next day [39]. Thus, integrated memories incorporating value information may be maintained as memory

models in mPFC that will later bias behavior. We note that this role for mPFC is likely also domain-general given its documented involvement in a number of tasks lacking an explicit value component. Recent attention has focused on the behavioral benefits conferred by memory schema. For instance, research in rodents has shown that prior knowledge of a spatial layout (i.e., a spatial schema) can both facilitate acquisition of new related memories and speed their consolidation 40 and 41. Echoing these results, a number of human studies have reported behavioral benefits in learning and memory when new information can be incorporated into an existing schema 42•, 43 and 44. Application of a schema to a new Tideglusib scenario has also been shown to recruit hippocampus 45 and 46. For example, one fMRI study [46] found that while engagement and connectivity of hippocampus and ventral mPFC was enhanced during generation of a task schema, the application of schema to guide behavior

in a novel but similarly structured task selectively recruited hippocampus. Rodent [41] and human 26, 42• and 43 work further suggests that mPFC may be activated along with hippocampus during learning of schema-related information. Recent empirical data indicate that one factor that may influence the relative engagement of MTL and mPFC is the degree of consistency between new information and existing schema. Specifically, one study [42•] demonstrated that mPFC engagement was more predictive of subsequent memory for information congruent with existing schema, perhaps reflecting direct encoding1 of new content into prior knowledge. By contrast, MTL engagement was more predictive of successful encoding of incongruent information.

1A–C) is the higher levels of vg, vgR and hex 70a transcripts in

1A–C) is the higher levels of vg, vgR and hex 70a transcripts in non-infected

bees fed beebread compared to the infected bees fed the same diet. These results indicate that infection significantly prevented up-regulation of vg, vgR and hex 70a genes in the bees fed beebread. Infection also prevented the increase in the levels of vg and hex 70a transcripts (but not of vgR transcripts) in syrup-fed bees, although this effect was much less obvious than that shown by beebread-fed bees ( Fig. 1A–C). Bees fed on royal jelly showed low and similar levels of vg, vgR and hex 70a transcripts, regardless of infection ( Fig. 1A–C). In contrast to vg, vgR and hex 70a, neither the diet nor the infection altered the expression of the apoLp-III ( Fig. 1D) and apoLp-II/I genes ( Fig. 1E). Similar to apoLp-II/I, the expression of apoLpR did not change as a HSP inhibitor consequence of the infection ( Fig. 1F), however, the apoLpR gene was the only to show a higher expression in the bees fed syrup

in comparison to those fed beebread. To validate the above findings, we investigated the abundance of vg, hex 70a, and apoLp-II/I gene products in hemolymph of the bees fed the different diets and infected. The Vg, Hex 70a, and ApoLp-I (the major subunit derived from the post-translational cleavage of ApoLp-II/I) proteins are secreted by the fat body into the hemolymph, where they accumulate in large quantities. Similar to the transcription levels, we observed the highest Vg and Hex 70a levels in the hemolymph of the non-infected beebread-fed Alpelisib supplier bees. Intermediate and low, or very low, levels were respectively found in the other non-infected groups, fed royal jelly or syrup ( Fig. 2). Infection impaired the normal accumulation of Vg and Hex 70a in Farnesyltransferase the hemolymph of the bees fed beebread or royal jelly and this was more evident for Vg than for Hex 70a. Infection did not show any obvious effect on the hemolymph level of either protein in the bees fed syrup ( Fig. 2). Comparisons

of the ApoLp-I levels among the non-infected groups suggest that ApoLp-I accumulation is diet-dependent. However, this analysis was somewhat hindered due to the inconsistent levels of ApoLp-I in the hemolymph of bees fed on each of the protein-rich diets. In any case, the infection only slightly impaired the storage of ApoLp-I, independent of the diet supplied ( Fig. 2). All the bee groups showed similar survival rates, regardless of diet or infection (Supplementary file 1). To ensure that the bees were feeding normally, we also measured the volume of food consumed daily. There was no significant difference among the groups of bees (Supplementary file 2). We explored the relationships between diet (nutrition), ovary activation and response to infection in the honey bees. Because the worker bees used in this study were maintained without a queen, some of them were able to activate their ovaries.

They found that prescribing enhanced vertical diffusion slows

They found that prescribing enhanced vertical diffusion slows

the downslope progression of the plume, while prescribing enhanced vertical viscosity increases downslope transport (given sufficient supply of dense water). The agreement with the descent rate prediction of Shapiro and Hill (1997) was shown by Wobus et al. (2011) not to be limited to cascades with a sharp interface and a thin plume with hF∼O(He)hF∼O(He), but also applicable to thick and diffuse plumes as long as the vertical diffusivity κκ and viscosity PLX3397 solubility dmso ν   are of approximately the same magnitude (i.e. a vertical Prandtl number of Prv∼O(1)Prv∼O(1)). This study confirms the ( Shapiro and Hill (1997)) descent rate formula in a model using the GLS turbulence closure scheme (rather than prescribed turbulence). The agreement in Fig. 7 is explained by plumes of the ‘piercing’ regime of our experiments meeting the aforementioned Prandtl number criterion (see Table 1). On its downslope descent the plume (SFOW) mixes with and entrains three ambient water masses (ESW, AW and NSDW). Entrainment implying a volume click here increase is based on a potentially arbitrary distinction between plume water and ambient water which could result in imprecise heat and salt budgets. In the following we therefore concentrate on the mixing process where these budgets remain

well defined. Fig. 8 shows θ-S diagrams that trace the water properties down the slope at the end of each experiment (after 90 days). The θ-S values are plotted for the bottom model level at increasing depths from inflow region down to 1500 m. We show the θ-S properties for two experiments series: Q is ID-8 constant and S varies ( Fig. 8(a)), and Q varies and S is constant ( Fig. 8(b)). The dashed portion of the mixing curves in Fig. 8 shows that a considerable amount of mixing takes place within the injection grid cells. Any water introduced into the model is immediately diluted by

ambient water. These processes take place over a very small region of the model and are not considered any further. Instead we focus on the common feature of all curves in Fig. 8: the temperature rises to a temperature maximum (marked by red squares) due to the plume’s mixing with warm Atlantic Water. A very similar mixing characteristic was described by Fer and Ådlandsvik (2008) for a single overflow scenario ( S=35.3,T=-1.9°C,Qavg=0.07Sv) in a 3-D model study using ambient conditions similar to ours. Amongst the series with constant Q  =0.03 Sv ( Fig. 8(a)) only the weakest cascade (inflow salinity S  =34.75) retains traces of ESW in the bottom layer after 90 days. In the experiments with more saline inflow (S⩾35.00S⩾35.00), the θ-S curve in Fig. 8(a) only spans three water masses – SFOW, AW and NSDW – while ESW is no longer present near the seabed. The salinity at the temperature maximum is nearly identical (red squares in Fig. 8(a)) for runs with the same flow rate Q. The experiments with a constant inflow salinity S ( Fig.

, 2004, Grubb et al , 2006, Lipecka et al , 2006 and Norez et al

, 2004, Grubb et al., 2006, Lipecka et al., 2006 and Norez et al., 2006). Besides the effect on CFTR, little is known about the effect of curcumin on other chloride channels. Best et al. describe an activation of the swelling-activated chloride current IClswell in rat pancreatic cells by curcumin ( Best et al., 2007). IClswell is elicited after hypotonic shock during the homeostatic mechanism regulatory volume decrease (RVD). As a consequence, the exit of osmolytes from the cell drives an osmotic water efflux, mTOR inhibitor allowing the swollen cell to regain its original volume ( Furst et al., 2002). Cell volume alterations are involved in numerous cellular events like epithelial transport, metabolic processes,

hormone secretion, cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis ( Jakab et al., 2002 and Lang et al., 2006). Apoptotic stimuli have been reported to

rapidly activate Cl− conductances in a large variety of cell types. Cell shrinkage, the so-called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD), is an early event in apoptosis, and the efflux of Cl− contributes to this process. In a variety of cell types (epithelial cells, cardiomyocytes, neurons), the AVD-inducing anion channel was determined to be the volume-sensitive swelling-activated chloride channel, which is usually activated by hypotonicity under non-apoptotic conditions ( Lang et al., 2000, Lang et al., 2007, Okada et al., 2006 and Pasantes-Morales and Tuz, 2006). Since it is known that substances selleck kinase inhibitor able to modulate chloride channel activity can also interfere with the apoptotic process ( Shimizu et al., 2008), we set out to investigate whether or not curcumin is able to induce apoptosis via the modulation of chloride channels in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Surprisingly, in contrast to Best et al. (2007), we did not find any significant direct effect of 10 or 50 μM curcumin on IClswell; however, we discovered that curcumin

indirectly (i) activates IClswell at low concentrations (<5.0 μM), which most likely occurs by inducing apoptosis, and (ii) at higher concentrations (≥5.0 μM) not inhibits IClswell and causes an increase of cell volume and cell cycle arrest. Human renal HEK293 Phoenix cells (DiCiommo et al., 2004) were cultured in Minimum Essential Eagle Medium (MEM, Sigma, Austria) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, Cambrex Bio Science), 2 mM l-glutamine, 100 μg/ml streptomycin, 100 U/ml penicillin and 1 mM pyruvic acid (sodium salt). Human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells were cultured in McCoy’s 5a modified medium (Sigma, Austria) supplemented with 10% FBS, 100 μg/ml streptomycin and 100 U/ml penicillin. The cells were maintained at 37 °C, 5% CO2, 95% air and 100% humidity. Subcultures were routinely established every second to third day by seeding the cells into 100 mm diameter Petri dishes following trypsin/EDTA treatment.

Economic performance issues and indicators show whether a strong

Economic performance issues and indicators show whether a strong and sustainable coastal economy is being promoted and supported. Environmental DAPT purchase quality performance

issues and indicators demonstrate the availability of sustainable environmental practices and the way they are promoted. Social performance issues and indicators measure social unity and resiliance (SUSTAIN partnership, 2012b). Table 1 gives an overview of the core indicators and their allocation to issues and pillars. More detailed descriptions for each indicator and its units are provided in the SUSTAIN partnership (2012a). After the relevant data is collected and indicator values assigned during MK-2206 the ‘indicator application’ phase, a moderated stakeholder exercise takes place, which uses matrices to determine the relative importance of the issues and pillars (weighting), which

is then combined with the indicator values. Together, both the indicator application and the weighting exercise form the full SUSTAIN methodology, and are included in the DeCyDe tool by Isotech Ltd, Cyprus (Loizidou and Loizides, 2012). We focus on the first part of this methodology, the indicator application. The core indicators are mandatory and were used in both study sites, Neringa and Warnemünde. We largely followed the stepwise approach described in SUSTAIN partnership (2012b). First, the relevant data for each core indicator were collected. Second, each indicator was scored using the assessment mafosfamide protocols. The data was then attributed to one of six appropriate classes and converted into class values from 0 to 10 based on predefined ranges. These class

values were averaged for each issue and summed to receive a total score for the pillar. If data was imprecise or unavailable, the data was approximated. SUSTAIN provides EXCEL spread-sheets, which use entered scores to automatically calculate aggregated results for issues and pillars. In a third step, the results would be presented to and discussed with local and regional stakeholders during workshops. The purpose of this interactive discussion is to evaluate whether the set of indicators both meets local demand and is sufficient to provide a realistic picture of the state of sustainability. If not, additional optional indicators can be added to tailor the set to those specific needs. We left this step out of our case study and focused exclusively on scoring core indicators in order to keep the results comparable. In both study sites, the application exercise was carried out by local postgraduate students (Klaipeda University resp. Rostock University) with varying scientific background. Five groups worked in Neringa in September 2012 (25 students) and four groups in Warnemünde in January 2013 (20 students).

Computational models

have demonstrated the feasibility of

Computational models

have demonstrated the feasibility of this corticostriatal output-gating find more architecture for solving hierarchical tasks 18, 22•• and 42••, and at least one such model has been supported by data from fMRI [42••]. Moreover, human diffusion tractography confirms a prediction motivated by this model — namely, that any given area of striatum is more likely to also receive projections from frontal areas more rostral, rather than caudal, to its primary input source [47]. Though a variety of computational modeling thus indicates that corticostriatal circuits can support output gating, empirical studies have only begun to test the function of this hypothesized system. We PD0325901 recently confirmed the differential importance of output gating in hierarchical control [48••]. Our task used three sequentially presented and completely reorderable stimuli: two ‘item’ stimuli and a ‘context’ stimulus that specified which of the two items would be relevant for responses.

The core logic was straightforward: when the context appears first, it can be used to drive selective input gating of only the relevant subsequent item into working memory; however, when context appeared last, it could only be used for selectively output gating the relevant item out of all those seen. All trials showed sustained recruitment of a relatively caudal sector of frontal Dichloromethane dehalogenase cortex (the dorsal premotor cortex, or PMd), but a somewhat more rostral area (the pre-PMd) transiently increased its recruitment specifically when context was provided last, and was therefore implicated output gating ( Figure 3a). An overlapping region of the pre-PMd also increased its coupling with the BG in the same conditions ( Figure 3b). These two dynamics in pre-PMd

each predicted a distinct kind of individual difference during selective output gating alone: whereas bilateral prePMd recruitment predicted the mean efficiency of responses during selective output gating, its bilateral coupling with BG predicted response variability, as expected of a stochastic BG-mediated output gate. The rapidly developing literature on working memory input and output control has been strongly guided by the numerous models to posit that BG-mediated gating processes may address these problems. Unfortunately, computational models differ widely in how they treat a third kind of control problem. How is working memory reallocated when already-stored information is later revealed to be irrelevant? By some accounts, an active removal process is necessary; by others, passive decay could be sufficient [49]. Finally, a third class of models posit that irrelevant representations will tend to linger until (or unless) they are overwritten with new information, such as by input gating mechanisms 6, 10, 15 and 23••.

In contrast with the results of the other studies, the HOVON tria

In contrast with the results of the other studies, the HOVON trial [75] included three arms: PCs

stored in full plasma, in PAS III without INTERCEPT, and in PAS III with INTERCEPT. Although the primary outcome of this study was CCI and not bleeding, even prior to publication major concerns arose about a possible reduction in clinical efficacy for PCs treated with amotosalen/UVA: 32% of patients in the INTERCEPT arm presented a bleeding episode compared to 19% in the plasma arm, and CCIs in the INTERCEPT arm were lower by 31% compared to the plasma arm. However, this study had serious flaws, including a lack of blinding, the absence of bleeding assessment by independent and trained observers, and the use of a bleeding grading system different from the WHO scale. Furthermore, the only statistically significant differences were found between the Alectinib plasma arm and the PAS III + INTERCEPT arm, leaving

some doubts about the specific effects of additive solution and INTERCEPT treatment [83]. One of the advantages of PI-treated PCs is that shelf life can be extended from 5 to 6 or 7 days, since the 5-day limitation was based on the risk of bacterial contamination [84]. In the TESSI trial (Efficacy and Safety Study of Platelets Treated for Pathogen Inactivation and check details Stored for Up to Seven Days), Lozano et al. [76] opted for an innovative study design: they compared the therapeutic efficacy of amotosalen/UVA-treated vs. standard platelets that had been stored for 6 or 7 days. Every patient was included for only a single transfusion. The authors confirmed the noninferiority of PCs treated with INTERCEPT and stored for 6

or 7 days: the mean CCIs (after 1 h) were 8.163 and 9.383, respectively, for amotosalen/UVA-treated Janus kinase (JAK) and standard platelets. To minimize confounding variables, a Swiss team from Basel performed an open prospective study that compared a group of 44 patients who received amotosalen/UVA-treated apheresis platelets with a group of 72 patients who received γ-irradiated standard platelets in PAS III over a period of 28 days. The platelet content of the bags was identical (around 2.8 × 1011/unit) between the two groups. There was no difference in the CCI (after 1 h) between the two study arms (11.400 ± 4.900 vs. 11.000 ± 4.900, respectively, for amotosalen/UVA-treated apheresis platelets and γ-irradiated standard platelets) [78]. Due to a lack of availability of INTERCEPT-treated PCs, 38% of the transfusions in the INTERCEPT arm were given with standard platelets. A per-protocol analysis (including only transfusions with INTERCEPT-treated platelets) revealed a CCI (after 1 h) of 10.700 ± 5.600. The MIRACLE study is the only published RCT thus far of PCs treated with riboflavin/UV (MIRASOL). It was published in 2010 and included 118 patients. The CCI (after 1 h) was significantly lower in the riboflavin/UV arm than in the control arm (11.725 ± 1.14 vs. 16.939 ± 1.15, respectively).

Finally, the beads were probed with Streptavidin R-Phycoerythrin

Finally, the beads were probed with Streptavidin R-Phycoerythrin for 30 min with mixing at 10 μg/mL in BSA Block, washed 6 × 250 μL briefly with TBS-T and scanned in the BeadXpress™ reader as described above. Straight sandwich immunoassays for GDF15 and CEA (but no TAA detection) were performed in the same manner except that the Anti-Human IgG Fluorescent (DyLight 649) Secondary selleck chemical Antibody probing was omitted. The p53 autoantibody

(TAA) ELISA was performed similar to published reports (Zhang et al., 2003). Briefly, the recombinant protein was diluted to 0.5 ng/μL in PBS and 100 μL used to passively coat each well of a 96-well polystyrene microtiter plate (Nunc-Immuno 96-Well Plates, PolySorp). Alectinib Plates were then washed with TBS-T and pre-treated with BSA Block. Sera/plasma samples were diluted to 1/100 in BSA Block and 100 μL added to the wells for 30 min incubation. Detection was with an HRP conjugated mouse anti-human IgG antibody followed by development with SureBlue TMB 1-Component Microwell Peroxidase Substrate. The CEA sandwich ELISA was performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions (see Section 2.1: Supplies and Reagents). Recombinant proteins were directly and covalently attached to VeraCode™ beads using standard

carbodiimide (EDC) chemistries to link amine groups on the proteins to the carboxyl groups on the beads. In the case of cell-free expressed proteins, they were affinity captured directly from the crude expression reactions by their C-terminal SBP-Tag (Keefe et al., 2001) onto streptavidin coated VeraCode™ beads. For preparation of streptavidin coated VeraCode™ beads, optimal results (data not shown) were obtained by first attaching a biotin-amine

linker to the carboxyl beads using the aforementioned carbodiimide chemistry, followed by attachment of (tetrameric) streptavidin to the biotinylated beads. With either recombinant or cell-free proteins, MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit successful attachment of the proteins to the beads is readily verified (quality controlled) by detection of epitope or fusion tags present in the proteins. An example of this quality control measure is shown in Supplementary Fig. 1 with the p53 and MAP4K4 proteins. Detection of recombinant proteins was via a GST fusion tag in this case and cell-free proteins via their N-terminal VSV-G epitope tag. With the recombinant proteins, signal to background ratios were 250:1 and 125:5 for p53 and MAP4K4 respectively, and for the cell-free proteins 34:1 and 87:1 (note that all DNA clones used to produce cell-free proteins were sequence verified). First, human p53 (TP53) (Koziol et al., 2003, Saleh et al., 2004, Nozoe et al., 2007 and Reuschenbach et al., 2009) was validated as a positive control TAA using a conventional ELISA to detect autoantibodies in the serum/plasma of 47 healthy (normal) and 47 colorectal cancer patient samples (94 total patient samples) (Fig. 2, top panel).

4B and D), a consistent mechanism would have been expected, resul

4B and D), a consistent mechanism would have been expected, resulting in a Nutlin-3a single dose–response curve. Thus, the difference in the slopes of the dose–response relationships for the MWO and LWO exposures suggests different toxicity mechanisms for the same response. Changes in potency generally occur from different modifying factors, as suggested above, whereas changes in slope (toxic mechanism) are generally thought to result from the presence of different toxicants acting by different mechanisms of action. Quantitative

data on such modifying factors that could have contributed to changes in slope, such as the potential of microbial action either directly or through formation of metabolites as a potential cause were not available from this study to definitively address the source of the shift in the mechanism of action. Thus, for sublethal endpoints, a convincing monotonic dose–response relationship was not established linking aqueous TPAH or HMW alkyl-PAH concentrations with observed toxicity. Reduced jaw,% effective swimmers, and pericardial edema,

sublethal responses that were also reported by Carls et al. (1999) for all treatments, also show two dose–response relationships as occurred with larval yolk sac edema and spinal defects (Fig. 4) and show LWO data points with no toxicity at higher TPAH and HMW alkyl-PAH concentrations than MWO points that show a toxic effect. Although PAH are likely contributors to the observed sublethal responses, causation has not been established. Other chemicals in the effluents

probably contributed to lethal and sublethal BIRB 796 molecular weight responses, particularly in the MWO experiment. It is likely that PAH and alkane biodegradation products and microbial metabolites contributed to the toxicity of the column effluents, particularly for the MWO effluents. For example, some oxygenated PAH (microbial degradation products of PAH) are as toxic or more toxic than the metabolized PAH to early life stages of fish and produce sublethal effects, including yolk sac edema and spinal defects, similar to those associated with exposure to complex mixtures of PAH (Carney et al., 2008 and Fallahtafti et al., 2012). These biodegradation products would not be detected in water and tissues by the analytical methods used by Carls et al. (1999). Therefore, aqueous TPAH concentration would not be an accurate dose metric for Alectinib datasheet these experiments if such materials are contributing significantly to the observed responses. An assessment based on tissue residues, assuming that all toxicants were measured, might have led to a better understanding of the relationship between exposure and effects. However, a comparison across all treatments could not be performed because tissue PAH concentration data were not collected from all doses in the LWO study. Fig. 3 of Carls et al. (1999) suggests that the toxicokinetics for PAH in the two studies were substantially different on a wet-tissue-weight basis.