The size and number density of free volume domains in the PVP-PEG

The size and number density of free volume domains in the PVP-PEG blends were determined as functions of blend composition and relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere, which controls the amount of absorbed water. Correlating the free volume, adhesion behaviors, and tensile properties of the blends, the range of free volume favoring pressure-sensitive adhesion in examined compositions was established.

(C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 2408-2421, 2011″
“The molecular dynamics simulation (MD) method has been widely applied to the investigation of the thermal conductivity of single crystalline materials during last decade but no report on the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline solids by direct MD simulation with three-dimensional polycrystalline structure Selleck QVDOph is found so far. In this paper, the

periodic configuration of nanocrystalline argon for MD selleck inhibitor simulation is constructed based on the Voronoi tessellation method. The thermal conductivity of both perfect single crystal and nanocrystalline bulk argon are calculated by the Green-Kubo method. The results are compared with experiments as well as MD simulation results reported by others. The thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline argon with the average grain size of 5 nm is much lower than that of the corresponding perfect single crystal at temperatures between 10 and 70 K. The reduction can be attributed to grain boundary thermal resistance due to large number of grain interfaces in polycrystalline argon, as well as their limitation on the phonon mean free path. The magnitude of estimated grain boundary thermal resistance at different temperatures is on the scale of 10(-9) m(2)K/W. The grain boundary thermal resistance is larger at lower temperature. This report demonstrates that the thermal property of polycrystalline materials Duvelisib mouse can be investigated by MD simulation. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3510523]“

To compare visual function after phacoemulsification with implantation of a multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) or a monofocal IOL.

SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

METHODS: This study comprised patients with unilateral cataract who had phacoemulsification with implantation of an AcrySof ReSTOR SA60D3 multifocal IOL (multifocal group) or an AcrySof SA60AT single-piece monofocal IOL (monofocal group). Postoperative visual function, including uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuity; uncorrected (UNVA), corrected (CNVA), and distance-corrected near visual acuity; and contrast sensitivity were evaluated 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months postoperatively. Patient-reported vision and spectacle independence in the 2 groups were also compared.

We conclude that intercalated and exfoliated MMT silicates enhanc

We conclude that intercalated and exfoliated MMT silicates enhance mechanical and barrier properties of SPI films. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 2257-2263, 2010″
“Domino kidney paired donation (KPD) is a method by which an altruistic living

nondirected donor (LND) is allocated to a pool of incompatible donor-recipient pairs (DRP) and a series of KPDs is initiated. To evaluate the feasibility and clinical outcomes of multicenter domino KPD, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of DRPs who underwent domino KPD between February 2001 and July 2007 at one of 16 transplant centers. One hundred seventy-nine kidney transplants were performed, with 70 domino chains initiated by altruistic LND. There were 45 two-pair chains, 15 three-pair chains, 7 four-pair chains, 2 five-pair chains and 1 six-pair chain.

A majority of donors were spouses (47.5%) or altruistic PXD101 inhibitor LNDs (39.1%). DRPs with a blood type O recipient Vadimezan concentration or an AB donor comprised 45.9% of transplanted DRPs. HLA mismatch improved in transplanted donors compared to intended donors in pairs enrolled to improve HLA mismatch (3.4 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.8 +/- 1.0, p < 0.001). One-year and 5-year graft survival rates were 98.3% and 87.7%, respectively, with a median follow-up of 46 months. One-year and 5-year patient survival rates were 97.2% and 90.8%, respectively. In conclusion, multicenter domino KPD could multiply the benefits of donation from LNDs, with patients and graft survival rates comparable to those seen with conventional KPD.”
“Background: AZD6244 concentration Mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and

dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes of Plasmodium falciparum are associated with resistance to anti-folate drugs, most notably sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Molecular studies document the prevalence of these mutations in parasite populations across the African continent. However, there is no systematic review examining the collective epidemiological significance of these studies. This meta-analysis attempts to: 1) summarize genotype frequency data that are critical for molecular surveillance of anti-folate resistance and 2) identify the specific challenges facing the development of future molecular databases.

Methods: This review consists of 220 studies published prior to 2009 that report the frequency of select dhfr and dhps mutations in 31 African countries. Maps were created to summarize the location and prevalence of the highly resistant dhfr triple mutant (N51I, C59R, S108N) genotype and dhps double mutant (A437G and K540E) genotype in Africa. A hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various factors on reported mutant genotype frequency. These factors include: year and location of study, age and clinical status of sampled population, and reporting conventions for mixed genotype data.

The specific binding capacity of these MIP particles was determin

The specific binding capacity of these MIP particles was determined to be 15 mg E2/g. Nonimprinted polymer nanoparticles were also evaluated for nonspecific binding of E2,

using 0.5 mg in 1 mL of water, to attain 64% +/- 3% efficiency in 3 min towards general water treatment. A simple capillary electrophoresis method was successfully developed for the characterization of MIP and NIP particles. Apparently the less negative the electrophoretic mobility, the higher binding efficiency and faster binding kinetics the particles would exhibit with E2 due to less hindered Brownian diffusion. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 176: 1499-1508, 2010″
“Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) possessing low Curie temperatures (T(C)’s) offer the possibility for self-regulated heating of cancer cells, where the T(C) acts as an upper limit to heating 7-Cl-O-Nec1 concentration to prevent damage to neighboring healthy tissue. We report the synthesis of monodisperse metastable fcc gamma-phase Fe-Ni MNPs possessing tunable T(C)’s, whose stoichiometries have been predicted from metastable extensions to an equilibrium Fe-Ni phase diagram. Metastable alloys have been predicted within the constructs of the T(0) construction in the Fe-Ni eutectoid phase diagram. Fe-Ni MNPs have been synthesized via chemical reduction in Fe-and Ni-precursors with stoichiometries ranging from Fe(90)Ni(10) to Fe(70)Ni(30).

Mn-precursors have

been added to further Citarinostat manufacturer reduce SC79 manufacturer the alloy’s T(C). MNP morphology and structure have been confirmed by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy while magnetic properties were investigated using vibrating sample magnetometry. Fe(70)Ni(30) MNPs were found to have a TC of 82 degrees C and specific magnetization of 66 emu/g. Addition of 1 wt % Mn to Fe(75)Ni(25) reduced the T(C) to 78 degrees C, which is the lowest reported for fcc Fe-Ni alloys. We also report a model for radio frequency self-regulated heating, in which the maximum achievable temperature of water-MNP suspensions (T(C)<100 degrees C) or octyl ether-MNP suspensions (T(C)<100 degrees C) is approximately the T(C) of the MNPs suspended in the solution. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3348738]“
“Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe patient characteristics and outcomes of heart failure (HF)-related intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalizations in children with cardiomyopathy (CM).

Methods and Results: A query of the Pediatric Health Information System database, a large administrative and billing database of 43 tertiary children’s hospitals, was performed. A total of 17,309 HF-related ICU hospitalizations from 2005 to 2010 of 14,985 children <= 18 years old were analyzed. Of those, 2,058 (12%) hospitalizations for CM-HF in 1,599 (11%) children were identified.

The nanocomposite emulsions were characterized by using Fourier T

The nanocomposite emulsions were characterized by using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), laser light scattering, and surface tension method. Thermal properties of the copolymers were studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and then IPI-549 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor the effects of OMMT percent on the water absorption ratio and drying speed were examined. Results showed that OMMT could improve the properties of emulsion. In other words, the properties of nanocomposite emulsions were better when compared with those of the silicone-acrylate emulsion. The property of nanocomposite emulsion containing 1 wt % OMMT was the

best one, and the following advantages were obtained: smaller particle size, faster drying speed, smaller surface tension, and improved water resistance by the incorporation of OMMT. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 1227-1237, 2012″
“The electrical properties of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) based on pentacene as the active layer and lithium fluoride (LiF) as the gate dielectric layer were investigated. Fabricated devices exhibited ambipolar behavior that can be controlled by the applied source, drain and gate biases. It was found that at low source-drain biases, multistep hopping is the dominant conduction mechanism, whereas in high voltage regimes, I-V data fits in the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling model.

The relationship between the applied gate bias and the field enhancement factor, which is the Fosbretabulin nmr ratio of

the local surface electric field to the applied electric field, were determined from the slope of the FN plots. The dependency between the transition points in conduction mechanism upon gate bias has also been extracted from the FN plots. The transition points show more dependency on gate voltage for negative biases compared to the positive biases. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3597323]“
“Pancreas transplantation is an effective treatment option for patients with complicated diabetes mellitus. Pancreas allograft recipients are followed with laboratory markers such as serum amylase, lipase and glucose levels. Hyperglycemia may indicate severe Panobinostat in vitro acute rejection and has recently been associated with antibody-mediated (humoral) rejection. In this report, we describe a unique case of a pancreas-after-kidney (PAK) transplant recipient with the rare presentation of pancreatic panniculitis, biopsy-proven severe acute cellular and antibody-mediated pancreas allograft rejection and surprisingly well-preserved endocrine function despite treatment with high dose steroids. We discuss the clinicopathologic features of antibody-mediated pancreas rejection, including the importance of correlating pancreas allograft biopsy, C4d staining and donor specific antibodies, to diagnose antibody-mediated rejection and initiate the correct treatment.

METHODS AND MATERIALS Facial skin aging assessments performed by

METHODS AND MATERIALS Facial skin aging assessments performed by four blinded dermatologists were correlated with plasma isoprostane levels

in 46 healthy, nonsmoking Japanese women aged 45 to 60. RESULTS Individuals whose assessed skin age exceeded chronological age had mean plasma isoprostane levels of PGF2a and 8-iso-PGF2a that were higher than those whose skin age was assessed to be less than chronological age ( p =.001 and.001, respectively). These results remained statistically significant when adjusted for confounding variables ( 8-iso-PGF2a, p =.02; PGF2a, p =.03).

CONCLUSIONS Plasma isoprostanes as markers of accelerated aging of the skin merit further study.”
“Despite learn more extensive research, the mortality associated with sepsis in hospitals remains very high. We have evaluated the protective immunomodulatory effect of thalidomide alone or with Augmentin in Klebsiella GSK690693 pneumoniae B5055-induced sepsis in BALB/c mice. The mouse model of sepsis was developed by placing K. pneumoniae B5055 entrapped in fibrin and thrombin clots in

the peritoneal cavity of mice. The septic mice were treated with thalidomide alone (30 mg/kg/day/po), Augmentin alone (20 mu g/ml/ip) and with their combination. The thalidomide-alone treated mice showed 75% survival whereas 60% of the Augmentin-alone treated group survived. Combination treatment provided 100% survival. Treatment with thalidomide alone significantly (p<0.05) decreased interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the serum without significantly (p<0.05) decreasing the bacterial count in blood. Augmentin alone

only decreased the bacterial load in blood significantly (p<0.05). However, a combination of thalidomide with Augmentin significantly (p<0.05) decreased both the bacterial count and inflammatory mediators.”
“OBJECTIVE: The delay between the availability of clinical evidence and

its application to the care of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia remains undefined. The Saudi Project for

Assessment of Coronary Events HDAC 抑制剂 (SPACE) registry provides a comprehensive

view of the current diagnostic and treatment strategies for patients

with ACS; thus, the registry may be used to identify opportunities to

improve the care of these patients.

METHODS: Eight hospitals in different regions of Saudi Arabia were

involved in the pilot phase of the registry, from December 2005 to

July 2006. The study patients included individuals with ST segment elevation

myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI and unstable angina.

RESULTS: A total of 435 patients (77% men and 80% Saudis) with a mean

age of 57.1 years were enrolled.

The median time to progression (TTP)

The median time to progression (TTP) learn more was 5.7 months (95% C.I. 3.1-8.6 months) with a median overall survival (MOS) of 9 months (95% C.I. 4.4-13.9 months). Toxicity was mild with no cases of febrile neutropenia;

5 patients (14%) developed grade 2 neuropathy. Our study confirms the substantial activity of weekly regimen of paclitaxel and carboplatin. Due to its favorable profile of toxicity this schedule could represent an interesting therapeutic option in selected chemonaive elderly patients with advanced NSCLC.”
“Free electron concentration and carrier mobility measurements on 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor inversion layers are reported in this article. The key finding is that in state-of-the-art nitrided AZD6738 gate oxides, loss of carriers by trapping no longer plays a significant role in the current degradation under heavy inversion conditions. Rather, it is the low carrier mobility (maximum similar to 60 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) that limits the channel current. The measured free carrier

concentration is modeled using the charge-sheet model and the mobility is modeled by existing mobility models. Possible mobility mechanisms have been discussed based on the modeling results. (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3484043]“
“Purpose. At 14:28 hours on May 12, 2008, a massive earthquake wracked most areas of Sichuan, China, causing catastrophic human loss. The aim of this study was to delineate the characteristics of victims with maxillofacial fractures in this disaster.

Patients and methods. A descriptive analysis was conducted based on the medical records of AZD1080 earthquake maxillofacial injuries casualties transferred to West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, after the earthquake. Data regarding demographic details, psychological status, patterns,

anatomic sites, etiology, concomitant injuries, and management of earthquake maxillofacial fractures were evaluated.

Results. A total of 46 maxillofacial fracture patients’ records of 28 (60.9%) males and 18 (39.1%) females were included in this study, with peak incidence (32.6%) in the elderly age group (older than 50 years). The most common etiology of earthquake maxillofacial fractures was building collapse (71.7%). The mandible (65.2%) was the most frequent site of the maxillofacial fracture, followed by the zygomatic complex (21.7%) and maxilla (13.0%). The most prevalent of maxillofacial fracture pattern was multiple and/or comminuted fractures (56.5%), which accounted for 72.7% (24/33) in building collapse injury group. There were 9 (19.6%) patients with significant concomitant injuries and the most common site of concomitant injuries was the head (4 cases) and extremity (4 cases). Four (8.7%) patients’ maxillofacial fractures were treated conservatively, 16 (34.8%) underwent closed reduction and fixation, and 26 (56.5%) underwent open reduction and rigid internal fixation (RIF). Apart from 3 patients (6.

Medical history and clinical and radiologic examination findings

Medical history and clinical and radiologic examination findings were recorded to evaluate demographics, etiology, presentation, and type of facial fracture, as

well as its relationship to dental injury site and type.

Results: In 273 patients with dentition, we recorded 339 different facial fractures. Of these patients, 130 (47.5%) sustained a fracture in the non-tooth-bearing region, 44 (16%) had a fractured maxilla, and 65 (24%) had a fractured mandible. Among 224 patients Y-27632 order with dentition who had a facial fracture in only I compartment, 140 injured teeth were found in 50 patients. Of 122 patients with an injury limited to the non-tooth-bearing facial skeleton, 12 sustained dental trauma (10%). In patients with fractures limited to the maxilla (n = 41), 6 patients had dental injuries

(14.5%). In patients with fractures to the mandible (n = 61), 24 sustained dental injuries (39%). When we compared the type of tooth lesion and the location, simple crown fractures prevailed in both jaws. Patients with a fracture of the mandible were most likely to have a dental injury (39.3%). The highest incidence of dental lesions was found in the maxilla in combination with fractures of the lower jaw (39%). This incidence was even higher than the incidence of dental lesions in the lower jaw in combination Tucidinostat mouse with fractures of the mandible (24%).

Conclusions: Knowledge of the association of dental injuries and maxillofacial fractures is a basic tool for their prevention. Our study showed that in cases of trauma with mandibular fracture, the teeth in the upper jaw might be at higher risk than the teeth in the lower jaw. Further larger-scale studies on this topic could clarify this finding and may

provide suggestions for the amelioration of safety devices (such as modified bicycle helmets). (C) 2009 American Ferroptosis 抑制剂 临床试验 Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons J Oral Maxillofac Surg 67:1680-1684, 2009″
“To elucidate the epigenetic maintenance mechanism for functional plant centromeres, we studied transcriptional regulation of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENH3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. We focused on the structure and activity of the CENH3 promoter (CENH3pro) and its regulation by E2F transcription factors. Use of CENH3pro::GUS reporter gene constructs showed that CENH3pro is active in dividing tissues, and that full expression in root meristems depends on intragenic regulatory elements within the second intron. Chromatin immunoprecipitation identified CENH3 as an E2F target gene. Transient co-expression of a CENH3pro:: GUS reporter gene construct with various E2F transcription factors in A. thaliana protoplasts showed that E2Fa and E2Fb (preferentially with dimerization protein DPb) activate CENH3pro.

Design and Methods: ADAMTS13 contributes to vWF levels, and we in

Design and Methods: ADAMTS13 contributes to vWF levels, and we investigated genetic polymorphisms previously described to be associated with decreased levels of these proteins

in 435 patients with DVT (126 M and 309 F; median age 37 years, range 18-68 years) and 580 controls (163 M and 417 F; median age 35 years, range 18-68 years). Subsequently, we investigated the relationship between the genotypes and plasma levels of FVIII, vWF, and DVT risk. Results: Patients BAY 1895344 ic50 with DVT showed higher plasma levels of FVIII: C, FVIII:Ag, and vWF: Ag (P < .001) when compared to controls. Patients and controls heterozygous for the 4751A>G polymorphism in the vWF gene presented decreased levels of vWF: Ag, FVIII: Ag, and FVIII: C (P < .001), but this was not a protective factor for DVT. Individuals heterozygous for 1852C>G polymorphism in ADAMTS13 gene, which is associated with reduced levels of ADAMTS13, had significantly elevated levels of vWF: Ag (P = .001), FVIII: Ag (P = .01), and FVIII: C (P = .02). However, this polymorphism was not a risk factor

for DVT in our study. Heterozygosis for a new polymorphism identified in ADAMTS13 gene, 1787-26G>A, was significantly associated with elevated levels of FVIII: C (P = .02) when compared to wild type. Conclusions: Despite the tempting assumption that genetic factors that change

ADAMTS13 activity might modulate the risk of DVT find protocol by altering vWF and FVIII levels, the polymorphisms analyzed in this study did not correlate with DVT risk among patients investigated.”
“Trigeminal schwannomas extending into the deep parapharyngeal space are relatively rare, and a surgical approach to such tumors has not been well established. We report four cases in which the tumors were completely removed by using a combination of three approaches.

Four patients with trigeminal schwannomas extending into the extracranial space were surgically treated using a combination of the transcervical approach, anterolateral Selleckchem GSK3235025 retromaxillar pathway via gingivobuccal sulcus, and epi and interdural middle fossa approach.

The maximum diameters of the tumors ranged from 4 to 7 cm. Three tumors extended beyond the lower end of the maxillary sinus. All tumors were completely excised. The Karnofsky performance scales after surgery were more than 90% in all patients.

Although the tumors extending to the deep parapharyngeal space are difficult to completely remove via a single approach, a combined approach is useful in these huge extracranial extensions.”
“Abatacept (CTLA-Ig), a modulator of T-lymphocyte activation, has been approved by the Swiss health regulatory agency Swissmedic for the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Results show that both WKY and SHR have complementary, yet signif

Results show that both WKY and SHR have complementary, yet significantly asymmetric perfusion territories. Right or left dominances were observed in territories of the anterior (ACA), middle and posterior cerebral arteries, and the thalamic artery. Magnetic resonance angiography showed that some of the asymmetries were correlated with variations of the

ACA. The leptomeningeal circulation perfusing the outer layers of the cortex was observed as well. Significant and permanent changes in perfusion territories were obtained after temporary occlusion of the JQ1 in vitro right middle cerebral artery in both SHR and WKY, regardless of their particular dominance. However, animals with right dominance presented a larger volume change of the left perfusion territory (23 +/- 9%) than animals with left dominance (7 +/- 5%, P<0.002). The data suggest that animals with contralesional dominance primarily safeguard local CBF values with small changes in contralesional perfusion territory, while animals with ipsilesional dominance show a reversal of dominance and a substantial increase in contralesional perfusion territory. These findings show the usefulness of CASL to probe the collateral circulation.”
“Background and Purpose: Incidental detection of small renal masses has significantly increased over the last two decades with the advent of cross-sectional

imaging. The shift in stage has been met with a shift in treatment modality because

the preservation of renal parenchyma can prevent adverse outcomes. Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN) needs significant surgeon expertise, and preoperative planning is imperative.

Patients and Methods: Between December 2010 and September 2011, virtual surgical planning (VSP) was used in consecutive patients with renal tumors that were suspicious for renal-cell carcinoma who were undergoing RALPN by a single surgeon. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions were Ilomastat mw examined and manipulated preoperatively, and an operative plan formulated. Intraoperative anatomy and preoperative 3D reconstructions were compared in real time.

Results: A total of 10 patients underwent RALPN with preoperative VSP. Average patient age at intervention was 54.6 years and average tumor size was 4.3 cm (range 1.7-7.5 cm). Tumor laterality was evenly distributed. Nephrometry score ranged from 5A to 10P, and final tumor pathology results revealed malignancy in 80%. No complications occurred intraoperatively, and an excellent correlation was noted between preoperative 3D reconstruction and intraoperative anatomy. All patients underwent a successful partial nephrectomy with no positive margins on final pathology results. Mean length of surgery was 232.9 minutes (range 156-435 min), and mean estimated blood loss was 370 mL (range 75-1800 mL). Warm ischemia time ranged from 20 to 50 minutes (mean 33.9 min).

02), stenosis determined based on small branch pulmonary artery d

02), stenosis determined based on small branch pulmonary artery diameter was correlated to a prolonged interval to pulmonary valve replacement (P = .009). Initial diagnosis, prior palliative shunt operation, and degree of pulmonary regurgitation had no effect on the interval between pulmonary valve disruption and subsequent pulmonary valve replacement. As determined

by using multivariate analysis, only male sex and small pulmonary artery diameter remained significant BAY 11-7082 cost factors.

Conclusions: Male sex appears to shorten the interval between pulmonary valve disruption and pulmonary valve replacement, whereas small branch pulmonary artery diameter appears to lengthen the interval. Knowing which factors are detrimental and which are protective might help identify patients who are prone to a more rapid progression of right heart failure from free pulmonary insufficiency, possibly steering them toward Cl-amidine mouse more frequent follow-up or more aggressive heart failure medical regimens.”
“Bacopa monnieri, Linn. (Brahmi, BM), traditionally used to improve mental health in Indian ayurvedic system of medicine is known to possess various neuropharmacolgical properties. In the recent past, Drosophila has been widely used as a model to study various neurodegenerative

diseases. Environmental toxins like rotenone, a specific inhibitor of complex I is employed to increase oxidative stress mediated neuropathology and sporadic Parkinson’s disease. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective properties of BM against rotenone induced oxidative damage and neurotoxicity. Flies (Oregon K strain, adult males) exposed to a standardized BM powder for 7 days in the diet exhibited significant diminution in the levels of endogenous oxidative markers viz., malondialdehyde. hydroperoxide and protein carbonyl content. Further, BM offered complete protection against rotenone selleck (500 mu M) induced oxidative stress and markedly inhibited dopamine depletion (head region,

33%; body region, 44%) in flies. Flies exposed to rotenone + BM exhibited a lower incidence of mortality (40-66% protection) and per-formed better in a negative geotaxis assay (45-65%) both suggesting the neuroprotective potential of BM. Interestingly, BM also conferred significant resistance (43-54% protection) in a paraquat oxidative stress bioassay. The neuroprotective effects of BM were highly comparable to those of a commercially available Brahmi preparation. Although the precise mechanism/s underlying the neuroprotective efficacy of BM are not clear, it is hypothesized that it is wholly or in part related to its ability to mitigate rotenone induced oxidative stress. Further, our approach confirms the utility of the Drosophila model in screening putative neuroprotective phytomedicines prior to their use in mammalian models. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc.