Moreover, mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS and then

Moreover, mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS and then immediately subcutaneously administered with blank microspheres, colistin microspheres AZD7762 Cell Cycle inhibitor or colistin sulfate alone. The levels of endotoxin in the sera and cytokine in the spleens were then measured. A significant reduction

in the serum endotoxin level in the colistin microspheres group was observed at 24 h. The reduced endotoxin levels in the sera were correlated with the lower cytokine levels in the spleens of mice treated with colistin microspheres. Our results suggest that the use of colistin microspheres may help to maintain a higher colistin concentration in blood, reduce the levels of endotoxin and cytokines in endotoxin-induced sepsis, and lead to decreased toxicity.”
“The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for bacteremia by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Retrospective case-control study performed in a 450-bed acute care academic tertiary hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Cases included 53 patients with ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae bacteremia, and 159 controls with non-ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae bacteremia. Controls were matched in a 3:1 ratio to case patients according to

species of infecting organism, age, and severity of illness in the 24-48h before blood sample collection for culture calculated by the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) system. Previous antimicrobials STI571 were

more frequently administered to cases than to controls (56.5% MEK162 supplier vs 17%, p < 0.001). Binary logistic regression showed that the number (>2) of different families of antimicrobials received within 90 days before bloodstream infection was the only predictor of ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae in blood culture (OR = 2.29, 95% CI 1.35-3.88, p = 0.002). Conclusion: Previous use of different families of antimicrobials (more than two) in patients with bloodstream infection caused by E. coli or K. pneumoniae increased the risk for ESBL-producing strains.”
“BACKGROUND Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs in one of every 1,000 individuals per year. Various inherited and acquired risk factors are known. We investigated the importance of oral contraceptives (OCs) as a risk factor in women of child-bearing age.

OBJECTIVES To evaluate the risk factors for DVT in a female patient collective.

METHODS We analyzed the records of 99 women aged 18 to 50 with DVT. We documented age, identifiable risk factor of DVT, location of the thrombus, use of OCs, and thrombophilia.

RESULTS 52.5% of patients suffering from DVT were aged between 40-50 years. Forty-six patients had an unprovoked DVT; the most common risk factor was immobilization in 41. Thrombophilia was found in 18 cases. Twenty-nine patients used OCs; no influence of OCs on any of the other risk factors was found.

Pregnant

women (> 18 years, prepregnancy

Pregnant

women (> 18 years, prepregnancy BIX 01294 chemical structure BMI 28 +/- 6 kg/mA(2), 39 % nulliparae, 25 % smokers) with a history of bariatric surgery were recruited and allocated to two groups according to surgery type: restrictive (N = 18) and bypass group (N = 31). One 7-day dietary record and one Kaiser questionnaire on PA were collected during the first and second trimester. Dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index.

The diet quality did not change during pregnancy (restrictive group p = 0.050; bypass group p = 0.975) and was comparable between groups (first trimester p = 0.426; second trimester p = 0.937). During the first trimester, 15 % of the pregnant women had a healthy diet quality, 82 % had a diet that needed improvement, and 3 % had a poor diet quality. This was independent of surgery type and was comparable in the second trimester (p = 0.525). No difference between groups was observed for the PA level, but the PA level in the bypass group significantly decreased from the first

to the second trimester (p = 0.033).

Nutritional advice and lifestyle coaching in this high-risk population seems recommendable since only 15 % of the pregnant women had a healthy diet quality, 25 % was smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, and the reported PA levels were low.”
“OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence NU7026 clinical trial of myositis-specific and myositis-associated autoantibodies and their clinical correlations in a large series of patients with dermatomyositis/polymyositis.

METHOD: This cross-sectional study enrolled 127 dermatomyositis cases and 95 polymyositis cases. The disease-related autoantibody profiles were determined using a commercially available blood testing kit.

RESULTS: The prevalence of myositis-specific autoantibodies in all 222 patients

was 34.4%, whereas myositis-associated autoantibodies were found in 41.4% of the patients. The most frequently found autoantibody was anti-Ro-52 (36.9%), followed by anti-Jo-1 (18.9%), anti-Mi-2 (8.1%), anti-Ku (4.1%), anti-SRP (3.2%), anti-PL-7 (3.2%), anti-PL-12 (2.7%), anti-PM/Scl75 (2.7%), and anti-PM/Scl100 (2.7%). The distributions β-Nicotinamide concentration of these autoantibodies were comparable between polymyositis and dermatomyositis, except for a higher prevalence of anti-Jo-1 in polymyositis. Anti-Mi-2 was more prevalent in dermatomyositis. Notably, in the multivariate analysis, anti-Mi-2 and anti-Ro-52 were associated with photosensitivity and pulmonary disorders, respectively, in dermatomyositis. Anti-Jo-1 was significantly correlated with pulmonary disorders in polymyositis. Moreover, anti-Ro-52 was associated with anti-Jo-1 in both diseases. No significant correlation was observed between the remaining autoantibodies and the clinical and/or laboratory findings.

Conclusion

Conclusion. selleck screening library Chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics is probably more prevalent in the general population than was previously thought and is generally more severe than other chronic pain.”
“Nonlinear effects, including two-photon absorption, Kerr effect, and terahertz related Kerr-like effect, are observed in one ZnTe crystal used as a terahertz emitter and detector. Experiment results show that nonlinear two-photon absorption of the probe beam, which adds to the difference signal, cannot be ignored. By removing the contribution of two-photon absorption, we demonstrate that the phase change in probe beam is due to Kerr effect and terahertz related Kerr-like effect. A phase sensitive

time resolved z-scan method is introduced to study the relationship between Kerr effect and terahertz related Kerr-like nonlinear effect, and the latter one is proved not to be only the primary fact that causes phase change in probe beam in one ZnTe.”
“Chromosomal locus 6q23 is strongly linked to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related features including insulin secretion Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor in various ethnic populations. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene is an interesting T2DM candidate gene in this chromosome region. CTGF is a key mediator of progressive pancreatic fibrosis up-regulated

in type 2 diabetes. In contrast, CTGF inactivation in mice compromises islet cell proliferation during embryogenesis. The aim of our study was to investigate an impact of CTGF genetic variation on pancreatic beta-cell function and T2DM pathogenesis. We studied the effect learn more of a common CTGF polymorphism rs9493150 on the risk of the T2DM development in three independent German cohorts. Specifically, the association between CTGF polymorphism and non-invasive markers of beta-cell area derived from oral glucose tolerance test was studied in subjects without diabetes. Neither in the Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Potsdam (MESYBEPO)

study (n = 1026) (OR = 0.637, CI (0.387-1.050); p = 0.077) nor in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam (EPIC-Potsdam) (n = 3049) cohort (RR = 0.77 CI (0.49-1.20), p = 0.249 for the recessive homozygote in general model), a significant association with increased diabetes risk was observed. The risk allele of rs9493150 had also no effect on markers of beta-cell area in the combined analysis of the MESYBEPO and Tubingen Family Study (n = 1826). In conclusion, the polymorphism rs9493150 in the 5′-untranslated region of the CTGF gene has no association with T2DM risk and surrogate markers of beta-cell area.”
“Introduction The mechanism of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) was reported as being related to both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Recurrence of CRPS was, reportedly, induced by hand surgery in a patient with upper limb CRPS.


“Background: Patients with upper motor neuron injury can d


“Background: Patients with upper motor neuron injury can develop painful inferior glenohumeral subluxation with functional impairment. If the pain is relieved by manual reduction of the subluxation, this pain is considered mechanical in nature and potentially amenable to surgical treatment to maintain this reduction. The purpose of this study was to report our outcomes with use of the biceps suspension procedure to achieve shoulder joint reduction and pain relief in hemiplegic patients.

Methods: This retrospective case series of eleven consecutive hemiplegic patients with painful glenohumeral subluxation underwent

surgical reduction with a biceps suspension procedure. Seven patients had, in addition, extra-articular AR-13324 tenotomies to treat

coexisting PD173074 muscular contractures. Pain, physical examination findings, and radiographs were evaluated before and after surgery. Patient satisfaction with the outcome of the surgery was determined as well.

Results: The mean duration of the patient follow-up was 3.2 years (range, 2.0 to 5.8 years). The average patient age was 46.9 years (range, eighteen to eighty-one years). Ten of the patients were female. All patients had pain with passive shoulder motion preoperatively, but only one patient had such pain postoperatively (p < 0.001). At the time of follow-up after the surgery, the mean score for pain on a visual analog scale was 1.45 (range, 0 to 5), with all patients noting a decrease in pain. Ten patients noted that Fer-1 deformity was also decreased at the time of follow-up. All patients had a sulcus sign on physical examination preoperatively, but only three had such a sign postoperatively (p < 0.001). The seven patients who had undergone shoulder tenotomies had significant improvements in shoulder extension (p = 0.009), forward elevation (p = 0.030), abduction (p = 0.040), and external rotation (p = 0.043) postoperatively. Ten patients were satisfied with the outcome of the surgery. Preoperative radiographs demonstrated inferior subluxation of the humeral head at the glenohumeral joint in all patients.

Postoperatively, ten patients had an improved glenohumeral joint position, and nine of these patients had complete reduction of the humeral head.

Conclusions: Biceps suspension surgery can provide pain relief in hemiplegic patients with painful subluxation of the humeral head after upper motor neuron injury. Tenotomy of contracted muscles around the shoulder can improve passive shoulder motion in patients with spastic hemiplegia. Following surgery, there were high rates of glenohumeral reduction and patient satisfaction.”
“Transcribed within the lateral hypothalamus, the neuropeptides orexin/hypocretin (OX) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) both promote palatable food intake and are stimulated by palatable food.

73 and 0 93

Conclusion: By statistically eliminating

73 and 0.93.

Conclusion: By statistically eliminating the redundant items, the EMPATHIC questionnaire could be reduced from 65 to 30 items. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Unintended hyperinflation of the cuff of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has been associated with

increased airway morbidity and postoperative pain. While the manufacturers recommend a cuff pressure of less than 60 cmH(2)O, in usual clinical practice, there is no method used to determine intracuff pressure of an LMA. The purpose of this prospective quality assurance study is to evaluate Selleck LY3039478 the incidence of LMA hyperinflation and excessive intracuff pressure in a busy tertiary care pediatric hospital.

Methods: There was no change dictated in clinical practice for these patients. Per our usual

practice, the LMA was removed from the package and inserted with the cuff partially inflated. The cuff was further inflated as needed to ensure a seal during selleck screening library positive pressure ventilation to a peak inflating pressure of 20-25 cmH(2)O. During the first 30 min of the case, the pressure in the cuff of the LMA was measured using a hand held manometer. Additional data collected included the patient’s demographic data (age, weight, and gender), the size of the FIT, and whether nitrous oxide was in use.

Results: Of the 200 subjects in the current study, 106 had an LMA cuff pressure >= 60 cmH(2)O (53%). Patients who were greater than 8 years of age had significantly higher average cuff pressures and significantly more LMAs with an intracuff pressure >= 60 cmH(2)O when compared to patients younger than 4 years of age and patients 4-8 years of age. Similarly, larger LMAs were found to have significantly higher intracuff pressures.

Conclusions: Using current clinical practice to inflate the cuff of the LMA, a significant percentage of pediatric patients have an intracuff pressure greater than the generally recommended

upper limit of 60 cmH(2)O. Risk factors identified in our study included age of the patient and the size of the LMA. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To assess the effects of iron supplementation on iron status, cognitive function, affective behavior and scholastic performance in 4EGI-1 in vivo adolescents with varying iron status.

Methods: Adolescents of both sexes with varying iron status were allocated to four treatment groups by using inclusion criteria. Three of the four groups (iron deficient anemic, iron deficient and control supplement) received Iron(Ill) hydroxide polymaltose complex (IPC, Maltofer (R)) containing 100 mg of elemental iron 6 days a week for 8 months, while the fourth group (control placebo) was given a placebo. Hematological parameters, cognitive function, affective behavior and scholastic performance were assessed at baseline, 4 months and 8 months of supplementation.

The minimum detectable concentrations of mouse IgG for 77 and 155

The minimum detectable concentrations of mouse IgG for 77 and 155 MHz Love wave SAW biosensors and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor Z-VAD-FMK purchase were found to be 2.5, 1, and 1 mu g/mL, respectively. The fabricated Love wave SAW and SPR biosensors showed similar performances in detectable concentrations of mouse IgG and in coefficient of determination.”
“Although pulmonary toxicity from sirolimus is well recognized, the biochemically homologous everolimus has until recently been thought to be free from this side effect. Emerging evidence suggests an association between

high-dose everolimus and symptomatic pneumonitis. Toxicity at typical immunosuppressive doses has also been described. In support of these observations, we report the occurrence of clinical pneumonitis in 3 patients in association HSP990 chemical structure with everolimus therapy after heart transplantation in the absence of other causative factors. Typical onset consisted of dyspnea, hypoxemia, and bilateral diffuse pulmonary infiltrates beginning between 2 weeks and 6 months after commencement of the drug. Although uncommon, everolimus may cause pneumonitis and should be considered

in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates and hypoxemia in an appropriate clinical setting. J Heart Lung Transplant 2009;28:104-6. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the relationship between psychotropic medication dosage and birth outcomes.

Methods: A total of 136 women were enrolled, who had an active mental disorder, were taking medication to prevent a relapse, or had

a history of postpartum depression or psychosis. Medication use was evaluated for the three trimesters and during labor. Based on the defined daily dose, medication use was classified into three groups. Primary outcome variables included the infant gestational age at birth, birth weight, and Apgar scores at one and 5 minutes.

Results: Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of Apgar selleck products score <= 7 at 5 minutes in women taking psychotropic drugs as compared with the group taking no medication, respectively (16.3% versus 0.0%, P=0.01). There was no significant difference between the two groups in Apgar score at one minute or in gestational age and birth weight. The results showed no significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, or Apgar scores for a low-intermediate or high dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and for a low or intermediate dose of an antipsychotic.

Conclusion: This study does not indicate a relationship between doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics and adverse neonatal outcomes.

36%, P = 0 41) There were 3 treatment failures out of 37 patient

36%, P = 0.41). There were 3 treatment failures out of 37 patients (8.1%). All these three patients had CIN 3 at the beginning and two of them had positive HPV DNA in two controls. There were no recurrence/treatment failure for CIN 1 patients. Regarding 37 patients, decrease in cytologic abnormality incidence between third and sixth-month control was statistically significant (29.7 vs. 10.9%, P = 0.03). All four patients with cytologic abnormality at the sixth

month had HPV persistence. Cytologic abnormality was more prevelant in HPV persistent women (P = 0.01) and also there was no cytologic abnormality in case of HPV DNA negativity.

LEEP does not seem to decrease HPV DNA incidence for CIN 1 at least for 6 months. But HPV DNA used Ulixertinib inhibitor in addition to cytology might help to detect recurrences.”
“A HM781-36B order theoretical model is developed to ascertain the necessary band structure and equi-frequency contour (EFC) features of two-dimensional phononic crystals (PCs) for the realization of phase control between propagating acoustic waves. Two different PCs, a square array of cylindrical polyvinylchloride inclusions in air and a triangular

array of cylindrical steel inclusions in methanol, offer band structures and EFCs with highly dissimilar features. We demonstrate that PCs with EFCs showing non-collinear wave and group velocity vectors are ideal systems for controlling the phase between propagating acoustic waves. Finite-difference time-domain simulations are employed to validate theoretical models and demonstrate the control

of phase between propagating acoustic waves in PC structures. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3641634]“
“Measuring global gene expression using cDNA or oligonucleotide microarrays is an effective approach to understanding the complex mechanisms of the effects of radiation. However, few studies have been carried out that investigate gene expression in vivo after prolonged exposure to low-dose-rate radiation. In selleck products this study, C57BL/6J mice were continuously irradiated with gamma-rays for 485 days at dose-rates of 0.032-13 mu Gy/min. Gene expression profiles in the kidney and testis froth irradiated and unirradiated mice were analyzed, and differentially expressed genes were identified. A combination of pathway analysis and hierarchical clustering of differentially expressed genes revealed that expression of genes involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was elevated in the kidney after irradiation at the dose-rates of 0.65 mu Gy/min and 13 mu Gy/min. Expression of cell cycle-associated genes was not profoundly modulated in the kidney, in contrast to the response to acute irradiation, suggesting a threshold in the dose-rate for modulation of the expression of cell cycle-related genes in vivo following exposure to radiation.

According to this model the liquid liquid line for the EVOH-38/DM

According to this model the liquid liquid line for the EVOH-38/DMF solutions should be situated at higher temperatures in comparison with EVOH-32/DMF solutions.

Moreover, the phase separation results from low affinity between the hydrophobic segments of EVOH and the segments of the copolymer containing hydroxyl or the solvent. The equilibrium melting temperature of EVOH increases with the increase of EVOH volume fraction in the solution. This effect LB-100 ic50 is more pronounced for EVOH-32/DMF solutions, which means that there is an influence of the VA content in EVOH during the melting. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 1787 1795, 2010″
“c-Fos protein immunocytochemistry was used to map the brain structures recruited during the evolution of seizures that follows repeated administration of a subconvulsive dose (35 mg/kg, ip) of pentylenetetrazol in rats. c-Fos appeared earliest in nucleus accumbens shell, piriform cortex, prefrontal cortex, and striatum (stages 1 and 2 of kindling www.selleckchem.com/products/Lapatinib-Ditosylate.html in comparison to control, saline-treated animals). At the third stage of kindling, central amygdala nuclei, entorhinal cortex, and lateral septal nuclei had enhanced

concentrations of c-Fos. At the fourth stage of kindling, c-Fos expression was increased in basolateral amygdala and CA1 area of the hippocampus. Finally. c-Fos labeling was enhanced in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus

only when tonic-clonic convulsions were fully developed. The most potent changes in c-Fos were observed in dentate gyrus, piriform cortex, CA1, lateral septal nuclei, basolateral amygdala, central amygdala nuclei, and prefrontal cortex. Piriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, prefrontal cortex, lateral septal nuclei, and CA3 area of the hippocampus appeared to be the brain structures selectively involved in the process of chemically induced kindling of seizures. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“This AZD6094 study compares the electrical output of photovoltaic (PV) cells encapsulated with silicones having different refractive indices to unencapsulated PV cells. It is demonstrated that the optical concentration ratio of dome-shaped concentrator PV systems can be increased by using a higher refractive-index encapsulant. The short-circuit photocurrent of the PV cell having high-refractive-index encapsulation (n=1.57) is 71% higher than that of the PV cell having a low-refractive-index encapsulation (n=1.41), and 316% higher than that of the unencapsulated PV cell. These experimental concentration-ratio enhancements are consistent with the theoretical estimates of concentration ratio dependence on the refractive index of the PV concentrator. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

2% LDK

2% check details of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than in nonfootball athletes in their initial (19.2%

versus 7.0%; P<0.001) and final (19.2% versus 10.2%; P=0.001) years of athletic participation. In adjusted analyses, the odds of hypertension were higher among football athletes in the initial year (adjusted odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-4.30) but not in the final year (adjusted odds ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (-0.82 mm Hg; P=0.002), whereas nonfootball athletes did not (0.18 mm Hg; P=0.58).

Conclusions-Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension compared with male nonfootball athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention, and treatment are needed.”
“The aim of this study

was to evaluate the effects of FSH and LH on follicle development during a long-term culture of signaling pathway cryopreserved human ovarian tissue, using morphological and ultrastructural examinations. Thawed ovarian tissue slices from a 4-year-old child with Wilms tumor were cultured for 32 weeks in two different culture conditions, without (medium A) and with (medium B) a monthly peaked increase in FSH and LH. At week 32, in

the medium B cultured tissue, a cluster of preantral follicles associated with two oocytes prematurely ovulated was observed, suggesting that the cyclic increase of gonadotropins promoted thawed follicles to grow up to the antral stage. However, the integrity and coordinated follicle development were not maintained. Indeed, ultrastructural analysis showed a well-preserved “”naked”" oocyte with concomitant features of immaturity and maturity, as if this culture condition had led to an asynchronous maturation of oocyte cytoplasmic components.”
“Neonatal and paediatric intensive care are usually provided in distinct units, characterized by highly specialized staffs dedicated either to critically ill newborns (NICUs) or to critically ill children (PICUs). However, such a model may MAPK inhibitor be not suitable or even applicable to all medical organisations or to different local needs. Actually, in Europe there are several PICUs which routinely provide care also to neonatal patients, including extremely preterm infants. Conversely, there are many NICUs which occasionally, or systematically, admit also young infants and toddlers. Whilst many aspects of modern neonatal care do resemble those routinely used in the paediatric intensive care setting, several clinical issues are unique to each respective sector and cannot be easily translated to the other one.

The results indicated that QHPE was a novel,

The results indicated that QHPE was a novel, CX-6258 concentration efficient accelerator for the alkaline hydrolysis of PET fabrics. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121:2927-2935, 2011″
“Background: Epidemiologic studies that examined whether lignans, the most important class of phytoestrogens in the Western diet, protect against breast cancer have yielded inconsistent results.

Objective: In this study, we conducted meta-analyses

on the association between lignans and breast cancer risk.

Design: We performed a systematic MEDLINE search to identify epidemiologic studies published between 1997 and August 2009. We calculated pooled risk estimates (REs) for total lignan exposure, dietary lignan intake, enterolignan exposure, and blood or urine concentrations of PFTα enterolactone and according to menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status of tumors.

Results: We included 21 studies (11 prospective cohort studies and 10 case-control studies) in the meta-analyses. Lignan exposure was not associated with an overall breast cancer risk (RE: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.02; P for heterogeneity = 0.004). However, in postmenopausal women, high lignan intake was associated with a significant reduced risk of breast cancer (13 studies; RE: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.94; P for heterogeneity = 0.32). Breast cancer risk was also inversely associated

with enterolignan exposure (4 studies; RE: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.97) but not with blood or urine enterolactone concentrations. The associations were not significantly different between ER-status

subgroups (6 studies).

Conclusions: High lignan exposure may be associated with a reduced breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Additional work is warranted to clarify the association between lignan exposure and breast cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92: Cediranib 141-53.”
“A bit patterning process using the ferromagnetic (FM)-antiferromagnetic (AF) transition in [001]-oriented L1(0) FePt1-xRhx films was investigated. First, the composition (x) dependence of magnetization (M-s) and magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K-u) of the films was studied. The films with 0 <= x <= 0.32 showed ferromagnetism (800 <= M-s <= 1100 emu/cm(3)) with a high magnetocrystalline anisotropy (1.7 x 10(7) <= K-u <= 7.0 x 10(7) erg/cm(3)), and the films with 0.34 <= x <= 0.40 showed antiferromagnetism. The composition of x = 0.34 was the threshold of the FM-AF transition. Next, the FM-AF transition was applied for bit patterning. Atomic diffusion was used for modifying the composition. Only the magnetic phase of the area whose composition crossed the threshold changed abruptly to the FM phase. FM dots with sizes (D) of 20 <= D <= 1000 nm were observed in the AF matrix by magnetic force microscopy. The dots with D > 100 nm formed multidomain structures, and the dots with D <= 100 nm formed a single-domain structure. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.