Both impaired maturation of myelinated fibers and atrophy of unmyelinated fibers simultaneously occurred
in the sciatic nerves of these mice. Our mouse model may be useful for studying the pathogenesis of and therapies for diabetic sensory neuropathy. Acknowledgments We thank Keiko Isoda and Yasushi Suda of Tissue Biology and Electron Microscopy Research Center of Kawasaki Medical School for their technical assistance. This work was supported by Research Project Grants from Kawasaki Medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical School (22-A19, 23-13, 24-2) and KAKENHI (23591260). Conflict of Interest None declared.
The gap-crossing task was performed on two custom-built transparent Plexiglas platforms, one fixed and one movable for manual adjustment of the gap distance between platforms. The apparatus Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical was built essentially as described in Celikel and Sakmann (2007), with two individually moveable identical platforms made of transparent Plexiglas (width = 0.5
cm). The platforms (75 × 220 mm, width × length) were elevated 25 cm off the surface and surrounded on three sides with 20-cm-high walls (Fig. 2). The two platforms were placed end-to-end, facing each other. Each platform is equipped with two motion sensors (MS) to monitor animal movements Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on the platform and to calculate off-line variables of decision making during the gap-crossing task. Additionally a high-resolution infrared video camera Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (PIKE 032B, Allied Vision Technologies GmbH, Stadtroda, Germany) fixed above the gap was recording whisker activity during attempts to cross. The platform in the field of view of the camera was called “target platform,” and the platform on the other side of the gap was called “home platform” (Fig. 2). “Target” and “home” are not used to denote a preferred direction of crossings. As the camera is placed over the target platform, data on whisker kinematics (Fig. 5 and Table 1) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and nose position (Fig. 4) are only collected when animals are approaching the gap from the home platform. An http://www.selleckchem.com/products/BI6727-Volasertib.html IR-backlight (Microscan, Renton, WA) positioned below the gap provided necessary contrast for tracking animal and whisker motion. A liquid-cooling block was placed
underneath the IR backlight to ensure that a constant temperature was maintained. Extraneous noise was masked with white noise (~75 dB). Table 1 Whisker kinematics data when the animal is ≤13 mm from the platform Figure 2 Sensory deprivation CYTH4 did not affect the performance in the gap-crossing task. (A) In the gap-crossing task, the animal is placed on a platform (home platform) and uses its whiskers to judge the distance to the other platform (target platform). Each platform … Figure 4 The spatiotemporal profile during exploration of the gap. (A) The animals’ spatiotemporal profile was calculated by tracking the nose position in the gap space. For each tracked frame, the x and y coordinates of the nose were extracted and the profiles …