Figure 3 Plasma lithium concentrations in healthy volunteers after administration of supplement containing 60 mg Li 2 CO 3 . A single dose of 5000 mg ATP or placebo with 60 mg Li2CO3 was administered via proximal-release pellets or distal-release pellets. Values are means ± SEM,
n = 8. Discussion The aim of this study was to determine the oral bioavailability of ATP after targeted delivery to the small selleck chemicals intestine using two types of enteric coated pH-sensitive multi-particulate supplements. As a comparison, ATP was also directly instilled in the small intestine via a naso-duodenal tube. Although the ATP dosage administered in our study (5000 mg, or 55.6 – 83.3 mg/kg body weight) exceeded those of most other oral administration studies, HDAC inhibitor we observed no changes in whole blood ATP concentrations. Recommended dosages to ‘increase your energy’ for ATP supplements marketed on the internet usually range from 100–250 mg per day, which is considerably lower that the dosage we tested. The only other human study that we know of that measured ATP after oral administration of either 150 mg or 225 mg ATP as enteric coated beadlets, also found no increase in plasma
and whole blood ATP concentrations . Kichenin et Pritelivir chemical structure al. orally administered ATP in dosages up to 20 mg/kg per day to rabbits and up to 10 mg/kg per day to rats [10, 11]. No increases in systemic plasma or erythrocyte ATP concentrations were observed. However, the concentration of ATP in plasma taken from the portal vein of rats increased rapidly up to a 1000-fold after direct instillation of ATP in the small intestine. In humans it is not possible to collect portal vein blood without performing very invasive procedures, and we could therefore not determine this is our study. Intravenous ATP administration in humans ranging
in dosage from 36 to 108 mg/kg per day [13, 18, 19] did lead to substantial increases in ATP concentration in the systemic circulation of up to 60% above baseline. Of the ATP metabolites considered, only uric acid concentrations increased significantly after administration of the proximal-release pellets and of the naso-duodenal tube, but not of the distal-release pellets. When ATP is released into the small intestine, ecto-nucleotidase triphosphatase diphosphohydrolases present on Metalloexopeptidase the luminal side of intestinal enterocytes dephosphorylate ATP via ADP to AMP , after which ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) degrades AMP to adenosine . In mice, the terminal ileum is the site in the intestine with the lowest ATPase activity . Although information on the human intestine is limited, this may explain the difference in plasma uric acid concentrations after ingesting the proximal or distal-release pellets. Concentrative (CNT) and equilibrative (ENT) nucleoside transporters are able to transport nucleosides into the intestinal enterocytes and to the capillary bed of the intestinal villi.