Taking the prevalence obtained from studies in the community, we

Taking the prevalence obtained from studies in the community, we can estimate that at least a fifth of all primary care patients have some type of substance disorder, most frequently nicotine or alcohol dependence. Although it is hard to conceive how GPs could provide state of theart specialist substance abuse treatment in these patient groups, which are notorious for being particularly challenging, screening, recognition, referral, and motivational enhancement techniques are usually seen as a standard requirement in primary care. Theoretically, GPs Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are in a unique position to at least intervene in legal

substance abuse problems. They avoid the stigma attached to specialist addiction units and have the advantage of comprehensively overlooking the long-term development and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical somatic

and mental risks. In light of these advantages, numerous short brief intervention packages and programs have been launched and considerable effectiveness has been demonstrated in controlled trials. The focus of most of these programs (for example, the United Kingdom Alcohol Treatment Trial [UK ATT], the National Treatment Outcome Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Research Study [NTORS], and the Smoking and Nicotine Awareness and Treatment Study [SNICAS]) is mostly on motivational techniques (such as motivational enhancement therapy [MET]) for nicotine and alcohol abusers, as well as behavioral treatments Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical sometimes supplemented by drugs. The outcomes of such endeavors are frequently disappointing. The selleck compound recent SNICAS trial54 in Germany revealed that 16% of consecutive male and 12% of female primary care attendees have a current nicotine dependence (Figure 2.) Although they were aware of the aim of the study, the GP recognized

only 76% of these patients as smokers, discussed the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical need for stopping with only 23%, and actually made an attempt to provide help in only 13%. Figure 2. Consecutive primary care attendees with nicotine dependence: recognition and management by primary care physicians. A further disappointing finding refers to patients’ lack of motivation to stop immediately and register Farnesyltransferase for a systematic state-of-the-art smoking cessation program and GPs’ apparent inability to perform appropriate motivational techniques. Thus, >1% of smokers actually receive some intervention. These findings clearly indicate that substance abuse treatment in primary care remains far from being a realistic option in routine care. Discussion The importance of the problem in mental disorders Clinical epidemiological studies are providing an increasingly sharper and fairly convergent picture about the importance of mental disorders in society, as well as in primary care.

Thus, predictive or presymptomatic

Thus, predictive or presymptomatic testing for late-onset neurological disorders, such as Huntington’s disease or cerebellar ataxia in younger relatives of patients, is well established. Moreover, kits for the diagnosis of several human disorders (via mutation detection) including cystic fibrosis, β-thalassemia, and Tay-Sachs disease, among others, are commercially

available. The problem of genetic heterogeneity Even from these single-gene disorders, we have indications Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that the situation is not that simple. Geneticists are familiar with terms such as “epigenetics,” ie, genetic phenomena that cannot be explained by traditional Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical genetics. One example of this is disease transmission and severity being affected by the sex of the transmitting parent and “modifying factors” (probably other genes that affect, disease severity); this is the case for cystic fibrosis13 and hemochromatosis.14 We increasingly observe that, even if the gene buy NVP-BKM120 causing the disorder is known, the phenotype-genotype relationship is not

clear. This genetic heterogeneity poses a real problem for diagnostic testing. The connection between a patient’s symptoms, diagnosis, and the underlying Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical mechanism of disease is often obscure. For example, patients with mutations in different, genes may present as clinically identical, while patients with the same mutation may present, clinically disparate. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an oft-quoted Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical example of a disorder with different forms of inheritance and illustrates the problem that genetic heterogeneity creates for diagnostic testing. Early-onset AD is strongly familial, whereas late-onset AD is considered a complex disease with strong environmental influences. Mutations in the y4PP,presenilin 1 (PS1), and presenilin 2 (PS2) genes can cause clinically indistinguishable forms of early AD.15-17 On the other Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical hand, different

mutations in the same gene, eg, APP, can lead to two distinct diseases, early-onset AD and recurrent, intracerebral hemorrhage.18 The more disease genes that are discovered, the more apparent this phenomenon becomes. Another example is mutations Fossariinae in the androgen receptor gene (AR) in which the expansion of the trinucleotide triplet repeat CAG in the first exon of the gene leads to adult-onset motor neuron disease19 (spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy [SB MA] or Kennedy disease), whereas different types of mutations in the other exons of the same gene lead to androgen insensitivity20; these are two completely different, pathologies. Thus, it is not hard to imagine that the situation is even more complex for polygenic disorders, which are caused by many different, genes and have an environmental component.

37,38 The finding becomes more intriguing when it is recalled tha

37,38 The finding becomes more intriguing when it is recalled that ~80% of individuals with schizophrenia are daily smokers.37 Additionally, there is evidence that atypical antipsychotic medications can “normalize” abnormal P50 testing.39-42 These results indicate a critical

point when considering endophenotypes: environmental see more influences must be considered, not only as sources of variance (eg, experimental error, circadian variation, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical influence of personal habits such as nicotine and caffeine intake), but also as clues to mechanisms that may provide pathways from gene variants to endophenotypes, or from endophenotypes to key symptom clusters or subtypes of disorders. To summarize the P50 endophenotype literature, there is substantial evidence that the P50 abnormality in schizophrenia fulfills generally accepted criteria for an endophenotype. Variation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in or near the α7-nicotinic

receptor subunit gene may explain some of the genetic variance in the P50 measurement, and additional research with this endophenotype can be expected Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to yield new insights into this subtype of schizophrenia. Stability and heritability of an endophenotype: cognitive deficits in schizpophrenia as an example A second endophenotype that has been studied extensively in schizophrenia is working memory. This term can be defined as the holding of information in the consciousness, in preparation for complex processing. Working memory can be assessed by multiple different mental tasks, such as N back, Wisconsin Card Sort, and reverse digit Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical span. Deficits

in working memory have been described as an endophenotype for schizophrenia (for a review, see reference 43). The fraction of individuals with schizophrenia who are designated as having abnormal working memory varies with the tests employed, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the clinical population studied, and the definition of abnormal (eg, 1.5 or 2 standard deviation units below the mean for controls). If consideration is given only to studies of large numbers of cases (-100) and controls, most reports describe 25% to 50% of persons with schizophrenia as falling in the variably defined “deficit range” for working memory44-49 Several lines of evidence suggest that the working memory deficits are partly heritable. Twin studies of unaffected and discordant (for schizophrenia) no monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs indicate that genetic influences in the schizophrenia-related working memory deficits are prominent.50-53 In addition, multiple studies suggest that a small fraction of the variance in working memory scores is explained by a functional variant in the catechol- O methyltransferase (COMT) gene,54-56 although this finding is not observed consistently57 Working memory deficits are more common among the unaffected relatives (compared with controls) of schizophrenic individuals who have deficits themselves (for a review, see reference 8).

In the mid-1950s, Christian de Duve discovered the lysosome (see,

In the mid-1950s, Christian de Duve discovered the lysosome (see, for example, de Duve et al.8 and Gianetto et al.9) (Figure 1). The lysosome was first recognized biochemically in rat liver as a vacuolar structure that contains various hydrolytic enzymes which function optimally at an acidic pH. It is surrounded by a membrane that selleck chemicals endows the contained enzymes with the latency that is required to protect the cellular contents from their action (see below). The

definition of the lysosome was broadened over the years because it had been recognized that the digestive process is dynamic and involves numerous stages of lysosomal maturation together with the digestion of both Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical exogenous proteins (which are targeted

to the lysosome through receptor-mediated endocytosis and pinocytosis) and exogenous particles (which are targeted via phagocytosis; the two processes are known as heterophagy), Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as well as digestion of endogenous proteins and cellular organelles (which are targeted by micro- and macroautophagy; see Figure 2). The lysosomal/vacuolar Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical system as we currently recognize it is a discontinuous and heterogeneous digestive system that also includes structures that are devoid of hydrolases—for example, early endosomes which contain endocytosed receptor–ligand complexes and pinocytosed/phagocytosed extracellular contents. At the other extreme it includes the residual bodies—the end products of the completed digestive processes of heterophagy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and autophagy. In between these extremes one can observe: primary/nascent lysosomes that have not been engaged yet in any proteolytic process; early autophagic vacuoles that might contain intracellular organelles; intermediate/late endosomes and phagocytic vacuoles (heterophagic vacuoles) that contain extracellular contents/particles; and multivesicular bodies (MVBs) which are the transition

vacuoles between Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical endosomes/phagocytic vacuoles and the digestive lysosomes. Figure 1 The lysosome. Figure 2 The four digestive processes mediated by the lysosome (from the upper left corner clockwise). The discovery of the lysosome, along with independent experiments that were carried out at the Methisazone same time and that have further strengthened the notion that cellular proteins are indeed in a constant state of synthesis and degradation (see, for example, Simpson10), led scientists to feel, for the first time, that they have at hand an organelle that can potentially mediate degradation of intracellular proteins. The fact that the proteases were separated from their substrates by a membrane provided an explanation for controlled degradation, and the only problem left to be explained was how the substrates are translocated into the lysosomal lumen, exposed to the activity of the lysosomal proteases, and degraded.

There is a decline in DAT binding that defines a threshold for ea

There is a decline in DAT binding that defines a threshold for early Parkinsonism (Guttman et al. 1997) making it possible to follow disease progression in PD patients (Nurmi et al. 2000; Marek et al. 2001; Winogrodzka et al. 2001). DAT binding aids in the early diagnosis of PD from other motor disorders helping to detect patients at baseline who after follow-up months or years later show no change

in status (Jennings et al. 2004; Marshall et al. 2009). In addition, as compensation for the decrease in DA terminals, there is down-regulation of DAT protein helping Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical promote higher sustained levels of DA in the synaptic cleft (Lee et al. 2000). Could there be a compensatory increase in DAT in presymptomatic PD? Compensation could occur by sprouting new terminals or by increasing DAT protein expression in surviving nerve terminals. Several studies in rodents have reported selective lesions to the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical DA innervation

of the Selleck COX inhibitor dorsal striatum are accompanied by sprouting of healthy neurons surrounding the site of injury (Dravid et al. 1984; Blanchard et al. 1996; Batchelor et al. 1999; Bezard et al. 2000). However, this is unlikely in this rotenone microsphere model as TH staining, an indirect measure of DA terminals in the dorsal striatum is significantly reduced. It is more plausible to assume an increase in DAT protein, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a possibility raised by Bellucci and coworkers (2011) working with 12-month-old SYN120 transgenic mice expressing a truncated human α-synuclein. These mice show an age-dependent increase in α-synuclein deposition in the soma and dendrites of DA neurons of the SN and increased numbers of activated microglia in the surrounding tissue (Tofaris et al. 2006). While there is no decrease in the number of TH positive neurons in the substantia nigra there is Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a 30% decrease in DA levels and reduced

DA release in the dorsal striatum (Tofaris et al. 2006; Garcia-Reitbock et al. 2010). The behavioral phenotype presents with reduced locomotion at 12–18 months of age as compared to age-matched controls, but there are no signs and symptoms of Parkinsonism (Tofaris Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical et al. 2006; Bellucci et al. 2011). These mice show complexes of DAT/α-synuclein clustering in the cytosol of DA fibers in the striatum that accumulate these with age as compared to controls (Bellucci et al. 2011). These changes are accompanied by a significant increase of DAT protein (Bellucci et al. 2011). There is a direct protein–protein interaction between α-synuclein and DAT that is thought to function as a negative regulator of DA neurotransmission (Wersinger and Sidhu 2003; Eriksen et al. 2010; Swant et al. 2011). The gradual and subthreshold loss of DA function in the striatum of these SYN120 transgenic mice, together with the accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates, increase in DAT levels, and tissue neuroinflammation, without motor signs of PD have many similarities with the rotenone microsphere model described here.

lt is, however, proposed that CG may be given official recognitio

lt is, however, proposed that CG may be given official recognition in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic

and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.16 Adjustment after bereavement has been empirically shown to occur through a sequence of stages in a longitudinal study of bereaved individuals.17 This study revealed that in normal grieving, negative grief indicators such as disbelief, yearning, anger, and depression peak within approximately 6 months of loss. Lin and Lasker found a similar grief process in a study that looked specifically at bereaved parents after pregnancy loss.18 In this study, grief scores were initially relatively high and declined most steeply over the first year. In a 2-year follow-up Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical their evaluation of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the grief

process showed an interesting result: whilst 41 % of participants showed a normal decline of grief scores, the remaining 59% showed different patterns of this website pervasive presence or delayed resolution of grief. CG reactions after perinatal loss can be generally specified within the existing diagnostic criteria, but they differ from grief after other significant losses in a number of key aspects. A consistent feeling of guilt is commonly experienced after pregnancy loss and is associated with CG reactions.8,19,20 Self-blame Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical may prolong the normal grieving process, especially if there was a feeling of ambivalence towards the pregnancy21 or if the subject perceives having done something wrong (eg, smoking or Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical jogging during pregnancy). Another unicpe aspect of pregnancy loss is that women feel that their bodies have failed, and that their femininity has been undermined.20 Women who have already suffered a miscarriage show higher levels of psychological distress than women who have not experienced perinatal loss.22 Sometimes “child envy”—the feeling of being envious of other people’s children—can be an issue for those who have been through perinatal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical loss. These women often struggle to make contact with friends or family members who have children or who are at the same stage of pregnancy as

that at which the loss was suffered. Difficulty coping with these feelings and continuous avoidance often leads to Florfenicol isolation of these mothers. As pregnancy losses are typically sudden and unexpected, parents usually have no time to anticipate grief or prepare themselves for the change in situation. Unlike the death of other close family members, parents bereaved by a perinatal loss have few or no direct life experiences with the infant. The introduction of imaging techniques such as ultrasound and 3D presentations mean that the fetus is now more likely perceived as a baby than as a fetus,23,21 but studies evaluating the psychological effect of having viewed ultrasounds have reported discordant results. Whilst some studies report higher levels of grief in those who have seen the ultrasound image of the unborn child, especially in men,25 others found no relationship.

However, the protein complex was mainly excreted after two hours

However, the protein complex was mainly excreted after two hours in contrast to IGF-1/NP which accumulation in liver was over 17%ID/g at the same time point. It has been shown that intravenously administered mesoporous silicon microparticles loaded with siRNA encapsulated into nanoliposomes accumulate into the liver and spleen, but remain in the sinusoidal space, enabling sustained release of siRNA-loaded nanoliposomes [52]. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical In our other studies we have analyzed behavior of I-125 labeled thermally hydrocarbonized mesoporous

silicon nanoparticles in liver using combined data of autoradiography and electron microscopy [53]. Similar nanoparticles as used in this study were seen in hepatic veins and sinusoids but not internalized into macrophages or hepatocytes. In addition, Bimbo et al. reported that THCPSi nanoparticles are not phagocytes in extent by CaCo-2 or RAW 264.7 macrophages Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in vitro. Instead they showed a strong cellular association as majority of the nanoparticles remained attached to cell membranes [54]. We suggest that IGF-1/NP is intact in the liver and IGF-1 may be released during the 240min studied, whereas IGF-1/IGFBP-3 is cleared trough

hepatic system. This can be seen as steadier IGF-1 release in blood compared IGF-1/NP to IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and is also in accordance with our Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in vitro results. More stable release of IGF-1 conjugated to NPs can be achieved as compared to protein complexes. The doses used in our study have been the same as in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical mice where positive effects on inflammatory, demyelinating, and demyelinated lesions have been seen when using IGF-1 [55]. Relatively low levels of IGF-1 with or without IGFBP-3 or nanoparticles accumulated to the brains in all studied time points. The amount

crossing the BBB might, however, be sufficient to affect the physiological functions and modulate neuroendocrine and behavioural responses. The sustained release to blood and low tissue concentrations of IFG-1 delivered with nanoparticles may decrease the side effects like hypoglycemia without Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical losing the therapeutic effect. Low blood and tissue concentrations together with constant and sustained release may be beneficial for the continuous all IGF-1 therapy for INCL. In summary, we have studied the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of human IGF-1 administrated free or complexed to its natural binding protein IGFBP-3 or nanoparticles in infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL) mouse model. IGF-1 conjugated to nanoparticles accumulated and also remained in liver probably in the hepatic veins and sinusoids at high concentration in contrast to IGF-1/IGFPB-3 complex which dissociated and was actively excreted via kidneys and liver during studied time points. Since IGF-1/NP level also in blood decreased moderately compared to IGF-1/IGFBP-3 this data demonstrates steadier release of IGF-1 in to the circulation and XAV-939 datasheet longer bioavailability of IGF-1.

Other areas under investigation for genetic studies include the

Other areas under investigation for genetic studies include the serotononergic and dopaminergic systems. Van Grootheest et al34 studied a large number of twin pairs at age 12, 14, and 16; only at age 14 and 16 were the prevalence higher in girls; genetic factors contributed at all age groups to obsessive-compulsive symptom liability, with no sex differences. Environmental factors shared by children in the same family contribute to symptom score only at age 12. The same group35 studied mono- and dizygotic twin pairs from 8083 families through parental reports on the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Obsessive Compulsive Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist, and

concluded that obsessive-compulsive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical behavior is moderately stable in childhood due to genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental factors. Using the same scale, Hudziack et al36 studied 4246 twin pairs and found genetic factors accounting for 55% of the results, with 45% due to environmental influences. Neuroimaging studies In a review article, selleck screening library MacMaster et al37 reported on the results of an extensive

literature search based on imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry, and concluded that the cortical-striatal-thalamic circuits are the most implicated in pediatric OCD. Glutamatergic signals from the frontal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cortex would stimulate striatal activity, diminishing thalamic inhibition. Results Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of this meta-analysis included the following findings in youth with OCD: the cingular gyrus was found to be of greater volume and more active, the striatum is diminished, gray matter density in the orbitofrontal cortex is more elevated and voluminous on the right side, and thalamic volume and corpus callosum

are larger. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Evidence from drug therapy studies indicates a role for the dopaminergic (use of atypical antipsychotics), serotoninergic (use of clomipramine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRIs), and glutamatergic (use of riluzole) systems. Lazaro et al38 report on an fMRI study of 12 children with OCD compared with matched subjects; OCD patients presented significantly higher brain activation bilaterally in the middle frontal gyrus with decreased activation in the left insula and putamen after clinical improvement with 6 months of isothipendyl pharmacological treatment. MacMaster et al39 studied 28 treatment-naive pediatric OCD patients compared with 21 controls using magnetic resonance imaging; OCD patients were found to have a larger right orbitofrontal cortex. PANDAS Karla and Swedo40 examined the role of neuroimmune dysfunction in pediatric OCD. As stated, antibody formation may trigger an inflammatory reaction in the basal ganglia following GABHS, as well as possibly other micro-organisms such as viruses, borrelia, and mycoplasma.

The first layout of brain organization was provided by studies re

The first layout of brain organization was provided by studies relying on the abnormalities resulting from lesions of the neuronal tissue, caused either by accidents or by hemorrhages, such as that of the area identified by Paul Broca (1824-1880). The design of the first brain atlas provided a building block in our comprehension of brain

structure, with the definition of the Brodmann areas and the design of the first brain atlas (1909). Progress in the knowledge of the fine structure of the brain was marked by the appearance of detailed anatomies, with the description of neurons and their projections carried out by S. Ramón Y Cajal (1852-1934). In spite of the progress Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical made possible by the refinement of brain atlases, and then confirmed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), our knowledge of brain function and dysfunction is only slowly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical progressing. Developments in the understanding the functional properties of neurons and their communications was marked by a series of fundamental steps. The first was the controversy between the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745-1827)

and his compatriot the physician Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), who posited for the first time the existence of “animal electricity.” Proper studies of the electrical properties Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of neurons had, however, to await the development of electronics, and it was only in 1952 that Alan Hodgkin and Aldous Huxley established Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the theory explaining action potential properties. It was indispensable to understand how neurons, which are the building blocks of our brain, communicate, and how the electrical signal is transmitted from one cell to another. A contribution to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical our understanding of neurotransmission was made by the French physiologist Claude Bernard (1813-1878) with his postulate about the existence of a chemical transmitter that relayed the information between the nerve and the muscle. He based his hypothesis on the Pictilisib datasheet observation that transmission of the nerve impulse, which

normally provokes the contraction of the muscle, was blocked by the plant extract tubocurare, while the muscle still responded unless to direct electrical stimulation. Subsequently, Otto Loewi (1873-1961) identified that stimulation of the vagus nerve caused the release of a soluble factor that slowed down the heartbeat. First termed “vagus stoff” this substance was soon identified as acetylcholine, and it was found that this molecule activated the G-coupled muscarinic and the ionotropic nicotinic receptors, such as those expressed at the neuromuscular junction. The work of John Eccles (1903-1997) and Bernard Katz (1911-2003) with Ricardo Miledi provided the necessary steps to finally developing the general principles explaining synaptic transmission.

Discussion One important step in the management of a patient with

Discussion One important step in the management of a patient with a history of seizure(s) is correct diagnosis of the illness. An important and sometimes problematic issue in the management of seizure is the differentiation of epileptic seizures from non-epileptic ones.1 Basically, epilepsy is a clinical diagnosis. Unless one happens to observe a seizure while recording

the EEG, which is a rare event in general clinical practice, the diagnosis relies on the judgment of a physician Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or other health care providers. This judgment ultimately rests on the history provided by the patient or others, which may be misleading and results in maltreatment, similar to the scenario, which happened in the case of the present patient. The history of seeing flashing light was interpreted as epileptic aura. The triggering factors such as pain and inspecting blood were overlooked,

and motor phenomena, loss of consciousness and post-ictal confusion led to the misdiagnosis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the illness. She had been diagnosed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as having epilepsy for 16 years, however, normal EEGs and AED-unresponsiveness had been ignored. As others have mentioned in similar case reports, no one, even physicians who witness the events, is immune to making a false clinical diagnosis of epilepsy.3 Syncope is a condition that is most commonly misdiagnosed as epilepsy.4 The precise mechanism Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of vasovagal syncope is not fully understood. It is proposed that the failure of sympathetic efferent vasoconstrictor traffic occurs episodically and in response to a triggering agent such as fear, anger or pain.5 There is evidence for the involvement of both neural and chemical pathways.6 Presyncopal symptoms include lightheadedness, generalized muscle weakness, tinnitus Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and visual blurring, but up to a third of patients will have little or no GF109203X molecular weight prodrome. Often, unlike epileptic seizures, tonic-clonic convulsion, other motor phenomena, and

post-ictal confusion are uncommon features, but may occur.7 In the present case, injection (psychogenically)-induced asystole led to hypoxia, which in turn caused a typical tonic-clonic convulsion. Conclusion Carnitine dehydrogenase The possibility of vasovagal syncope should always be taken into consideration when evaluating patients with medically-refractory or unusual pattern of seizures. In such circumstances, simultaneous video-EEG/ECG monitoring may help achieve the correct diagnosis, particularly if the physician applies a triggering agent(s) after obtaining the patient’s consent. Conflict of Interest: None declared
Background: Brillantaisia lamium is an erect branched herb, which grows to a height of 1.50 m in moist tropical areas, both in full sun and partial shade. In , the aerial part of this plant is used in the treatment of various microbial infections such as skin diseases and infections of urinary tract.