According to the results of FTS the women were categorised into three risk groups: low risk for aneuploidy (<1:300), intermediate risk (1:300-1:50) and high risk (>1:50). They were counselled about the available options for invasive prenatal testing (IPT) and NIPT available at the time of FTS. The nine months before and after the introduction of NIPT were evaluated regarding further
testing after FTS.\n\nRESULTS: In total, 951 women were included: 505 examinations (group 1) were carried out before NIPT became available, 446 (group 2) thereafter. In group 2, 9.0% (40/446) had NIPT. Here, 60.0% (24/40) had a low risk according to FTS. In group 2 there was an increase of 3.6% of additional prenatal tests after FTS. The greatest increase was noted in the intermediate-risk find more category (10.7%). The number of invasive prenatal tests decreased by 67.4%.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: We observed a notable increase in prenatal testing after the implementation of NIPT. NIPT is an additional test for women who need more reassurance. Since the options for pregnant women become more complex Dibutyryl-cAMP in vitro and the costs of NIPT are high, prenatal counselling has become more challenging.”
“The extent to which mitochondrial
DNA (mtDNA) variation is involved in adaptive evolutionary change is currently being reevaluated. In particular, emerging evidence suggests that mtDNA genes coevolve with the nuclear genes with which they interact to form the energy producing enzyme complexes in the mitochondria. This suggests that intergenomic epistasis between mitochondrial and nuclear genes may affect whole-organism metabolic phenotypes. Here, we use crossed combinations of mitochondrial and nuclear lineages of the seed beetle Callosobruchus
maculatus and assay metabolic rate under two different temperature regimes. Metabolic rate was affected by an interaction between the mitochondrial and nuclear lineages and the temperature regime. Sequence data suggests that mitochondrial genetic variation has a role in determining the outcome of this interaction. Our genetic dissection of metabolic rate reveals a high level of complexity, encompassing genetic interactions over two genomes, and genotype x genotype x environment selleck chemical interactions. The evolutionary implications of these results are twofold. First, because metabolic rate is at the root of life histories, our results provide insights into the complexity of life-history evolution in general, and thermal adaptation in particular. Second, our results suggest a mechanism that could contribute to the maintenance of nonneutral mtDNA polymorphism.”
“Analysis of fast chlorophyll fluorescence rise OJIP was carried out to assess the impact of diuron, paraquat and flazasulfuron on energy fluxes and driving forces for photosynthesis in Lemna minor. Results showed that diuron and paraquat treatment produced major changes in electron transport in active reaction centres (RCs).
\n\nMethods: Stages 1/2: Interscalene catheter administration of ropivacaine was by a 10% incremental up-down sequential manner depending on the presence of recovery room pain in the previous patient. Stage 1: Ropivacaine (0.5% volume) was varied from 30 ml. Stage 2: Ropivacaine (20 ml, the ED (volume)(95) estimate from stage 1) concentration
was varied from 0.45%. Stage 3: Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 30 ml of ropivacaine, 0.5% (“conventional dose”), or 20 ml of ropivacaine, 0.375% (the estimated ED(volume+concentration)(95) from stages 1/2). A postoperative elastomeric infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine (2 ml/h) was administered. Grip strength was measured in the recovery room and time to first pain at 24 h.\n\nResults: Stage 1 (n = 34): Ropivacaine
0.5% ED(volume)(50)/ED (volume)(95) (95% CI) estimates were 2.7/20.5 ml (2.4-9.5/-25.8). Stage 2 (n = 29): Ropivacaine VEGFR inhibitor 20 ml ED(concentration)(50)/ED(concentration)(95) (95% CI) estimates were 0.15/0.34% (0.13-0.30/0.29-0.43). The ED(dose)(50) was similar for stages 1/2 (13.5 vs. 30 mg), but the ED(dose)(95) was higher for stage 1 (102.5 vs. 68 mg). Stage 3 (n = 40): Satisfaction (0-10) was modestly higher for the new/lower dose (median [interquartile range] = 10 [10-10] versus Sapanisertib in vitro 9 [8-10], P = 0.007). Pooled data regression analysis showed that increasing ropivacaine concentration increased grip weakness but not block duration.\n\nConclusions: Ropivacaine interscalene block requires a threshold volume and concentration, with concentration primarily determining motor block. When combined with continuous blockade, suprathreshold ropivacaine doses
do not significantly prolong primary block duration but may compromise patient satisfaction.”
“Aim: To determine whether acute or long-term exposure of the brain to mobile telephone radiofrequency (RF) fields produces activation of microglia, which normally respond rapidly to any change in their microenvironment.\n\nMethods: Using a purpose designed exposure system at 900 MHz, mice were given a single, far-field whole body exposure at a specific absorption VX-680 purchase rate (SAR) of 4 W/kg for 60 min (acute) or on five successive days per week for 104 weeks (long-term). Control mice were sham-exposed or freely mobile in a cage to control for any stress caused by immobilisation in the exposure module. Positive control brains subjected to a stab wound were also included to confirm the ability of microglia to react to any neural stress. Brains were perfusion-fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and representative regions of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus immunostained for ionised calcium binding adaptor molecule (Iba1), a specific microglial marker.
The cure rate after antimicrobial
treatment of clinical S. aureus mastitis is very variable due to both cow and bacterial factors. Studies have shown that bacterial genotype might affect short-term bacteriological and clinical cure, but the long-term outcome has been less studied. The objectives of this study were to investigate associations between bacterial genotype and long-term outcome of veterinary-treated clinical mastitis (VTCM) caused by S. aureus during a follow-up period of 120 days and to study genotype variation among Swedish S. aureus isolates. S. aureus isolates from cases of VTCM were genotyped by pulsed-field selleck inhibitor gel electrophoresis. Long-term outcome measurements used were somatic cell count (SCC), additional diagnoses of VTCM, milk yield and culling. Isolates were classified into clusters (>80% similarity) and pulsotypes (100% similarity). Clusters and pulsotypes were grouped according to occurrence. Multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models including cow and bacterial factors with possible influence on SCC or milk yield were used to calculate differences in SCC or milk yield between groups. Additional outcome measures were calculated using a test of proportions.\n\nResults: 4EGI-1 supplier The isolates (n = 185) were divided into 18 clusters and 29 pulsotypes. Two pulsotypes were
classified as common, and were found in 64% of the cases of VTCM. Remaining isolates were classified as less common or rare pulsotypes. The distribution was similar at cluster level. Outcome was calculated from follow-up data on 111 cows. Significantly lower SCC during the follow-up period was found in cows infected with common clusters compared to in cows infected with less common/rare clusters. The proportion of cows with SCC <200 000 cells/ml during the whole follow-up period was significantly higher in the group common clusters than in the group less common/rare clusters. Bacterial genotype did not influence the other outcome
parameters.\n\nConclusions: In Sweden, two S. aureus pulsotypes, identified in about 64% of clinical S. aureus cases, were widespread. Cows infected with the common genotypes had significantly lower SCC during 120 days after treatment compared to cows infected see more with less common or rare genotypes.”
“Aquaculture is a major source of invasive aquatic species, despite the fact that cultured organisms often have low genetic diversity and tend to be maladapted to survive in the wild. Yet, to what extent aquaculture escapees become established by means of high propagule pressure and multiple origins is not clear. We analysed the genetic diversity of 15 established populations and four farmed stocks of non-native rainbow trout in Chile, a species first introduced for recreational fishing around 1900, but which has in recent decades escaped in large numbers from fish farms and become widespread.
“Upon return from Hajj 2014, 150 Australian pilgrims were AZD4547 Angiogenesis inhibitor interviewed about their understanding of the Ebola epidemic. Most (89%, 134/150) knew of the epidemic before travelling and 60% (80/134) of those knew Ebola transmits through body fluids. Pilgrims who received pre-travel health advice were more conscious of Ebola (69% vs 31%, p = 0.01) and adhered better to hand hygiene after touching an ill person (68% vs 31%, p smaller than 0.01). Mass media was the main information source (78%).”
“Aims: Studying the molecules and signalling pathways regulating glioma invasiveness is a major challenge because these processes determine malignancy, progression, relapse and
prognosis. We took advantage of our previous study focused on genes that were critical in tumour invasion to further study here an unknown sequence, referred to as KIAA0510, the chromosomal location of which was 1q25, described as a 5596-bp long mRNA and that we found to be significantly overexpressed in pilocytic astrocytomas compared with glioblastomas. Methods and results: Using in silico analysis as well as Polymerase chain reaction techniques, we decipher the full genomic characterization of the KIAA0510 sequence and demonstrate that KIAA0510
constitutes the 3′-untranslated region of tenascin-R gene. We have clearly confirmed the overexpression of tenascin-R in pilocytic astrocytomas vs. glioblastomas at mRNA SB202190 clinical trial and protein levels. We also analysed a large series of various brain tumours and found that in the group of astrocytic tumours, tenascin-R expression decreased with malignancy, whereas oligodendrogliomas sometimes retained a high level of tenascin-R even in high-grade tumours. Gangliogliomas strongly
expressed tenascin-R too. In contrast, ependymomas and meningiomas were negative. In normal brain, tenascin-R was exclusively expressed by normal oligodendrocytes and subsets of neurones during post-natal development and in adulthood, where it could differentially affect cellular adhesiveness and/or differentiation. Conclusion: KIAA0510, the 3′-untranslated region of the tenascin-R gene, and tenascin-R are overexpressed in pilocytic astrocytomas. Gangliogliomas shared learn more with pilocytic astrocytomas strong tenascin-R expression. Whether tenascin-R overexpression negatively influences brain invasion remains to be determined.”
“We have recently analyzed theoretically the main characteristics of the edge depolarizing electric field (EDEF), in the vicinity of a nonpolar face of a pyroelectric. In this work, we measured and characterized the EDEF, excited by a harmonical thermal wave. We present here experimental results obtained on a pyroelectric crystal LiTaO3, confirming our theoretical predictions. The interpretation assumes an equivalent circuit of a pyroelectric capacitive current source.
In addition, other E. coli proteins HflK, HflC and HflD also influence lysogeny by acting upon CII Among these, HflD (22.9 kDa), a peripheral membrane protein that is exposed towards the cytoplasm, interacts with CII and decreases the frequency
of lysogenization of lambda by stimulating the degradation of CII In this study, we show that in addition to helping CII degradation, HflD inhibits the DNA binding by CII, thereby inhibiting CII-dependent transcription activation. From biochemical, INCB024360 purchase biophysical and modelling studies we also suggest that HflD-CII interaction takes place through the Cys31-accessible surface area of monomeric HflD, which binds to tetrameric CII as a 1:1 complex. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In late 2008, bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 6 (BTV-6), which had never occurred in Europe before, was first detected in the Netherlands and Germany.
While the origin of the virus remains unknown, the prevalence of infections in cattle was investigated in a virological (N=28,658) and serological (N=2075) field survey in Lower Saxony, where 45 cases confined to the district Grafschaft Bentheim were found. Blood from affected animals was used for the experimental infection of three cattle with different BTV antibody status, leading to sustained viraemia in one animal naive for BTV. Of two animals that had detectable antibodies against BTV serotype 8, find more one became transiently infected and seroconverted for BTV-6 while the other did not react. In conclusion, while only a very limited spread of BTV-6 could be observed in the field, experimental infection of cattle did not check details show substantial differences of the course of infection in comparison to other BTV serotypes. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
data support the concept that phenols and polyphenols in diet are safe and nontoxic, and have long-lasting beneficial effects on human health. The potential target for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research has been on the discovery of natural compounds that can be used in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Propolis is one of the richest sources of plant phenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids). The ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and its polyphenols possess immunomodulatory, chemopreventive, and antitumor effects. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a naturally occurring anticancer agent that preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and is not toxic to normal cells. Endogenous TRAIL plays a significant role in immunosurveillance and defense against cancer cells. However, as more tumor cells are reported to be resistant to TRAIL-mediated death, it is important to develop new strategies to overcome this resistance. EEP and polyphenols isolated from propolis have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.
Further prospective studied are needed to verify these findings.”
“Pseudo-two phase partitioning bioreactor (P-TPPB) Chk inhibitor was newly proposed as an extension
of the application of TPPB to bioprocesses in which hydrophilic substrates and/or products are involved. The feasibility of P-TPPB was demonstrated in enzymatic biodiesel production, where methanol completely inhibits the enzymes. Unlike conventional TPPB, the P-TPPB comprises a hydrophobic first phase (soybean oil) and hydrophilic second phase. n-Pentanol was found to be the optimum for the second phase, since P-TPPB containing n-pentanol showed the greatest total biodiesel conversion and highest fatty acid methyl ester content. The enzyme was repeatedly used to produce biodiesel in P-TPPB, while maintaining its activity at over 95 % relative to that of the intact enzyme.”
“Background: The delta opioid receptor (DOR) is a promising target to treat multiple indications, including alcoholism, anxiety, and nonmalignant pain. The potential of the DORs has been underappreciated, in part, due to relatively low functional expression of these receptors in naive states. However, chronic exposure to stress, opioids, and inflammation can induce a redistribution
of DORs to the cell surface where they can be activated. Previously, DORs were shown to be selectively/exclusively present in spinal cord circuits mediating mechanical sensitivity but not those mediating thermal nociception under naive conditions.\n\nMethods: We spinally administered DOR and mu opioid receptor (MOR) selective agonists GSK621 molecular weight find more ([D-Pen2,D-Pen5]-Enkephalin, deltorphin II, SNC80, and DAMGO) and antagonists (naltriben and CTAP) and determined thermal antinociception and mechanical sensitivity in wild-type mice or mice with a genetic disruption of DOR or MOR.
Thermal antinociception was measured using a radiant heat tail-flick assay; mechanical sensitivity was measured using von Frey filaments. Dose response curves were generated in naive mice and mice exposed to ethanol in a model of voluntary consumption.\n\nResults: We show that prolonged exposure to ethanol can promote an upregulation of functional DORs in the spinal cord in thermal pain-mediating circuits but not in those mediating mechanical sensitivity. The upregulated DORs either modulate MOR-mediated analgesia through convergence of circuits or signal transduction pathways and/or interact directly with MORs to form a new functional (heteromeric) unit.\n\nConclusions: Our findings suggest that DORs could be a novel target in conditions in which DORs are redistributed.”
“Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 15-20% of breast cancers but is responsible for a disproportionate number of deaths. We investigated the relevance, in TNBC, of nano-sized exosomes expelled from cells.
The phase analysis revealed that the NbB2 phase was achieved after 3 h high energy ball milling in self-stunning mode; meanwhile, the formation Rabusertib of NbC was progressively completed after a longer period of milling up to 7 h. According to the morphological evolutions, the range of particle size was within 100 nm. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.”
“The microenvironment of cells is dynamic and undergoes remodeling with time. This is evident in development, aging, pathological processes, and
at tissue-biomaterial interfaces, But in contrast, the majority of the biomimetic materials have static properties. Here, we show that a previously developed DNA crosslinked hydrogel circumvents the need of environmental factors and undergoes controlled stiffness change via DNA delivery, a feasible approach to initiate property changes in vivo, different from previous attempts. Two types of fibroblasts, L929 and GFP, were subject to the alterations in substrate rigidity presented in the hydrogels. Our results show that exogenous DNA does not cause appreciable cell shape change. Cells do respond to mechanical alterations as demonstrated in the cell projection area and polarity (e.g., Soft vs. Soft -> Medium), and the responses vary depending
on magnitude (e.g., Soft -> Medium vs. Soft -> Stiff) and range of stiffness changes (e.g.. Soft -> Medium vs. Medium -> Stiff). The two types of fibroblasts share specific responses in common (e.g., Soft -> Medium), while differ in others (e.g., Medium -> Stiff). For each cell type, the projection selleck products area and polarity respond differently. This approach provides insight into pathology (e.g., cancer) and tissue functioning, and assists in designing biomaterials with
controlled dynamic stiffness by choosing the range and magnitude of stiffness change. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Docetaxel (DTX) is one of the most important anticancer drugs; however, the severity of its adverse effects detracts from its practical use in the clinic. Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 (MgNPs-Fe3O4) can enhance the delivery and efficacy of anticancer drugs. We investigated the effects WH-4-023 manufacturer of MgNPs-Fe3O4 or DTX alone, and in combination with prostate cancer cell growth in vitro, as well as with the mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effects. MgNPs-Fe3O4 caused dose-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species levels in DU145, PC-3, and LNCaP cells; 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels were also elevated. MgNPs-Fe3O4 alone reduced the viability of LNCaP and PC-3 cells; however, MgNPs-Fe3O4 enhanced the cytotoxic effect of a low dose of DTX in all three cell lines. MgNPs-Fe3O4 also augmented the percentage of DU145 cells undergoing apoptosis following treatment with low dose DTX.
Overall MAI scores for all long-term medications used by a group of elderly patients improved significantly after a pharmacist-led medication review. This is an important finding because quality of prescribing is assuming increasing importance as a means of preventing avoidable medication-related harm.”
“BACKGROUND: In addition to the mutational status
of KRAS, CAL-101 chemical structure the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG) might function as bona fide biomarkers of cetuximab (Ctx) sensitivity for most EGFR-driven carcinomas.\n\nMETHODS: Lentivirus-delivered small hairpin RNAs were employed to specifically reduce AREG or EREG gene expression in wild-type KRAS A431 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Colony-forming assays were selleck products used to monitor the impact of AREG and EREG knockdown on Ctx efficacy. Amphiregulin and EREG protein expression levels were assessed by quantitative ELISA in parental A431 cells and in pooled populations of A431 cells adapted to grow in the presence of Ctx. A phosphoproteomic platform was used to measure the relative level
of phosphorylation of 42 distinct receptor tyrosine kinases before and after the acquisition of resistance to Ctx.\n\nRESULTS: Stable gene silencing of either ligand was found to notably reduce the expression of the other ligand. Parental A431 cells with normal expression levels of AREG/EREG exhibited significantly increased growth inhibition in response to Ctx, compared with derivatives that are engineered to produce minimal AREG/EREG. The parental A431 cells acutely treated with Ctx exhibited reduced basal expression levels of AREG/EREG. Pooled populations of Ctx-resistant A431 cells expressed significantly lower levels of AREG/EREG and were insensitive to the downregulatory effects of Ctx. Phosphoproteomic
screen identified a remarkable hyperactivation of FGFR3 in Ctx-resistant A431 cells, which gained sensitivity to the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the FGFR3 TK inhibitor PD173074. The A431 parental CRT0066101 datasheet cells acutely treated with Ctx rapidly activated FGFR3 and their concomitant exposure to Ctx and PD173074 resulted in synergistic apoptosis.\n\nCONCLUSION: Cross-suppression of AREG/EREG expression may explain the tight co-expression of AREG and EREG, as well as their tendency to be more highly expressed than other EGFR ligands to determine Ctx efficacy. The positive selection for Ctx-resistant tumour cells exhibiting AREG/EREG cross-suppression may have an important role in the emergence of Ctx resistance.
“Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common bacterium that can cause disease in humans and other animals. This study was conducted to screen for molecular detection and antimicrobial-resistant P. aeruginosa in Musca domestica in different locations in the Iranian provinces of Shahrekord and Isfahan. Methods: Musca domestica were captured by both manual and sticky trap methods,
during the daytime, from household kitchens, cattle farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals, slaughterhouses and chicken farms at random locations in Shahrekord and Isfahan provinces of Iran, and subsequently transported to the laboratory for detection of P. aeruginosa. In the laboratory, flies were identified and Linsitinib in vitro killed by refrigeration in a cold chamber at -20 degrees C, then placed in 5 mL peptone water and left at room temperature for five hours before being processed. check details Pseudomonas isolates were preliminarily identified to genus level based on colony morphology and gram staining, and their identity was further
confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Overall blaTEM gene was recovered from 8.8 % (53/600) of the P. aeruginosa isolated from houseflies collected from the two provinces. A slightly higher prevalence (10.7 %; 32/300) was recorded in Shahrekord province than Isfahan province (7.0 %; 21/300). The locations did not differ statistically (p smaller than 0.05) in bacterial prevalence in flies. Seasonal prevalence showed a significantly lower infection frequency during autumn. Conclusions: Houseflies are important in the epidemiology of P. aeruginosa infections.”
“Traumatic brain injury
(TBI) causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. A key component of both mild and severe TBI is diffuse axonal injury. Except in cases of extreme mechanical strain, when axons are torn at the moment of trauma, axonal stretch injury is characterized by early cytoskeletal proteolysis, transport disruption, and secondary axotomy. Calpains, a family of Ca2+-dependent proteases, have been implicated in this pathologic cascade, but direct in vivo evidence is lacking. To test the hypothesis that calpains play a causal role in axonal stretch injury in vivo, we used GSK923295 nmr our rat optic nerve stretch model following adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated overexpression of the endogenous calpain inhibitor calpastatin in optic nerve axons. AAV vectors were designed for optimal expression of human calpastatin (hCAST) in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Calpain inhibition by the expressed protein was then confirmed in primary cortical cultures. Finally, we performed bilateral intravitreal injections of AAV vectors expressing hCAST or the reporter protein ZsGreen 3 weeks prior to unilateral optic nerve stretch.
\n\nMethods: Hundred consecutive patients with trauma admitted to a surgical intensive care unit at a level I trauma center were prospectively analyzed. Demographies, acid-base data and diagnoses, and interventions were collected. Patients were cared for by one physician using a PC approach, or four using conventional (CONV) acid-base balance techniques. The diagnoses and interventions made by CONV physicians were reviewed by the PC Apoptosis Compound Library molecular weight physician for accuracy and appropriateness using PC techniques. Data are mean +/- SD or percents; p values reflect PC evaluation of CONV analysis.\n\nResults: There were 50 PC
patients and 50 CONV. There were no differences in age (p = 0.13), injury severity score (p = 0.21), number of operations (p = 0.87), transfusions (p = 0.87), or survival (p = 0.15). CONV missed 12 diagnoses of metabolic acidosis (p = 0.03), 10 of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (p = 0.003), 11 metabolic alkalosis (p = 0.02), and 19 tertiary disorders (p < 0.001). CONV missed 38 diagnoses of increased unmeasured ions (p < 0.001). PC normalized their acid-base balance sooner than CONV (3.3 days +/- 3.4 days vs. 8.3 days +/- 7.4 days, p < 0.01).\n\nConclusions:
A PC approach imp roves acid-base diagnosis accuracy. check details CONV often miss acidosis (particularly those because of hyperchloremia), alkalosis, and tertiary disorders. Inappropriate volume loading follows in the wake of misinterpretation HDAC inhibitor of increased base deficit using CONV and is avoided using PC. PC-directed therapy normalizes acid-base balance more rapidly than CONV.”
“Postoperative diplopia and strabismus may result from a variety of ocular surgical procedures. Common underlying mechanisms include sensory disturbance,
scarring, direct extraocular muscle injury, myotoxicity from injections of local anesthesia or antibiotics, and malpositioning of extraocular muscles by implant materials. The most common patterns are vertical and horizontal motility disturbance. Treatment options include prisms, botulinum, occlusion, or surgery. (Surv Ophthalmol 55:335-358, 2010. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.)”
“Aim: The study aims to investigate affect recognition in young people at different stages of psychotic illness.\n\nMethods: Seventy-nine ultra-high risk patients, 30 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy control subjects completed a facial affect labelling test and an affective prosody recognition test. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).\n\nResults: We observed significant impairments in facial and vocal emotion recognition in both of the clinical groups compared with the control group. These group differences remained significant when age, sex and education were taken into account.