Evaluation of the effects of both fractions of the chloroform–methanol extract of the seeds of P. americana on diarrhoea experimentally induced Autophagy Compound Library high throughput with castor oil in rats showed
that, they dose-dependently decreased the wetness of faeces and the frequency of defaecation of the treated rats with the effect of the 200 mg/kg body weight of the chloroform fraction being most pronounced at the fourth hour of post-treatment. This indicates that the seeds of P. americana contain anti-diarrhoeal agents which exert anti-diarrhoeal effect in a time-dependent manner. However, the chloroform fraction appeared to have decreased the wetness of faeces and the frequency of defaecation more than the methanol fraction. This might be as a result of the fact that the bioactive constituents responsible for the anti-diarrhoeal effect seem to reside more in the chloroform fraction than in the methanol fraction as shown by the result of the quantitative phytochemical analyses. Also, the finding that castor oil induced diarrhoea in Afatinib mouse all the castor oil-treated rats is in consonance with the finding of 7 who observed that the castor oil-induced diarrhoea model in rats allowed for the observation of measurable changes in the consistency and the number of stools.
Castor oil induces diarrhoea as a result of the action of ricinoleic
acid liberated from castor oil by lipase enzymes. The liberated ricinoleic acid causes irritation and inflammation of the intestinal mucosa leading to the release of prostaglandins which stimulate hyper-motility, alteration in the electrolyte permeability of the intestinal mucosa and increase in the volume of intestinal contents by preventing the reabsorption of sodium, potassium and water. 9 Inhibitors of synthesis of prostaglandins are also known to delay diarrhoea induced by castor oil. Diarrhoea results from an active intestinal secretion driven predominantly by net secretion of sodium and potassium. Therefore, the decrease in the wetness of faeces those and the frequency of defaecation observed with both fractions of the chloroform–methanol extract of the seeds of P. americana in this study are in part, indications of the anti-diarrhoeal effect of the seeds of P. americana. This anti-diarrhoeal effect of both fractions of the chloroform–methanol extract of the seeds of P. americana might be due to inhibition of biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Both fractions of the chloroform–methanol extract of the seeds of P. americana exerted dose-related anti-enteropooling effect in terms of the reductions in both the weight and the volume of the intestinal contents of the treated rats.