(2007) [7] These genes are present in the genomes

(2007) [7]. These genes are present in the genomes selleck chem ARQ197 of strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588, too (PGA1_c04930 and PGA1_c05350, _c13760, _c28490; PGA2_c05370 and PGA2_c04910, _c13660, _71p110). The genes Inhi_3983 of P. inhibens strain T5T and PGA2_71p110 of P. inhibens strain DSM 24588 are located on the 69 kb plasmid (Fig. 3) and 71 kb plasmid, respectively. In contrast, the homologous gene (PGA1_c28490) of P. inhibens strain DSM 17395 is located on the chromosome. For the P. inhibens strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 a surface-attached lifestyle was inferred from the genome analysis [3]. Even though strain T5T was isolated from a water sample, it exhibits the same genes associated with the biosynthesis and transport of polysaccharides as strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588.

This includes genes described as unique for the strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588, i.e. a gene coding for a glycosyltransferase-like protein (Inhi_3961) and two ORFs (Inhi_3954 and Inhi_3955) related to a type I secretion system and used for the transport of exopolysaccharides. Production of extracellular polysaccharides is a major factor contributing to surface attachment [77,78]. Thus it appears likely that T5T is also well-adapted to a surface attached lifestyle. P. inhibens was described as a strictly aerobic bacterium [1]. However, we found genes involved in the dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathway to nitrogen, including the gene coding for a copper containing nitrite reductase (Inhi_3645) and a nitric oxide reductase cluster (Inhi_3648 – Inhi_3654), both located on the replicon pInhi_A227.

These genes are also present and located on the largest plasmids of P. inhibens DSM 17395 (PGA1_262p) and P. inhibens DSM 24588 (PGA2_239p) (Figure 3). In addition, P. inhibens strain T5T possesses a gene cluster coding for a nitrous oxide reductase (Inhi_3786 �C Inhi_3792) located on the replicon pInhi_B88, which is absent in the strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (Figure 3). Neither strain T5T nor DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 have genes coding for a nitrate reductase. The findings suggest that P. inhibens T5T has a complete dissimilatory nitrite reduction pathway, but is not able to reduce Carfilzomib nitrate, as previously described by Martens et al. (2006) [1]. To confirm the results we tested strain T5T for its capability to grow anaerobically with nitrite. Anaerobic marine basal medium was prepared according to Cypionka and Pfennig (1986) [79] and supplemented with nitrite and glucose, both in a final concentration of 5 mM. After two weeks a decrease of nitrite was determined by photometric analysis at 545 nm by using the Griess reaction [80] and an increase of the turbidity was detected (results not shown). Thus it became clear that P.

The procedure’s average length was 50 minutes (ranging from 35 to

The procedure’s average length was 50 minutes (ranging from 35 to 80mn). During this study, there were two per operative difficulties: a very short cystic duct and an acute cholecystitis. These two procedures were brought to a successful conclusion. There were four failures. One was the impossibility of placing the nasogastric kinase inhibitor Tofacitinib tube into the stomach, two were due to the presence of very large gall stones (3.3 and 4cm wide), and one patient had an acute macro multilithiasis cholecystitis and a right hepatic artery. We carried out a standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy. No gastric or abdominal wall complication occured during the hospitalization or during the 6 weeks postoperative consultations. The majority of the patients (61/63) could resume normal physical activity after leaving our hospital.

4. Discussion The development of the laparoscopic surgery since the 1990s, allowed the abdominal wall trauma reduction. In 2007, 88 000 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed in France in opposition to 7770 laparotomies (PMSI French data). However, it is well known that all of the trocar site hernia occurred through large (> or = 10mm) port defect. According to the literature, the overall incidence of trocar site hernias is expected to be around 1% [5, 6]. The fascia closure should be done when ports > or = to 10mm have been employed. So we can reduce the rate of incisional hernia. Of course, the abdominal organ removal (as the gall bladder and its lithiasis) often requires enlarging the fascia incision with a high rate of incisional hernia, bruise, and infection [9�C11].

This abdominal wall trauma, even limited, prevents the patients from resuming normal physical activity very quickly especially for patients who practise sport, manual workers, or for example, if they have to look after a dependant relative. We thought that to use miniaturised instruments for dissection with ports less than 5mm could be more beneficial. So the risk of trocar site incisional hernia is almost zero and allows resuming normal activity upon hospital discharge. To the contrary of the Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (N.O.T.E.S.), our pediclar dissection is standardized and identical to the usual procedure without risk of increasing the rate of biliary complication (common in this kind of procedure). The gastric wall usually heals very quickly and well. In this way, the simple laparoscopic closure becomes the Batimastat reference procedure with peptic ulcer perforation [13] with an average rate of complication less than 1% in the context of a gastroduodenal pathology. We carry out a hand sewn gastrotomy surgical closure of greater quality than the endoscopic closure [3, 4, 12]. We prescribe a 10-day IPP treatment after this procedure. Our N.O.S.E.

Preparation of standard stock solution Accurately

Preparation of standard stock solution Accurately p53/MDM2 interaction weighed 10 mg of terbinafine hydrochloride was transferred to a 100 ml volumetric flask, dissolved in 20 ml distilled water by shaking manually for 10 min. The volume was adjusted with the same up to the mark to give the final strength, i.e. 100 ��g/ml. Selection of wavelength for analysis of terbinafine hydrochloride Appropriate volume 0.5 ml of standard stock solution of terbinafine hydrochloride was transferred into a 10 ml volumetric flask, diluted to a mark with distilled water to give concentration of 5 ��g/ml. The resulting solution was scanned in the UV range (200�C400 nm). In spectrum terbinafine hydrochloride showed absorbance maximum at 283 nm [Figure 2].

Figure 2 UV spectrum of terbinafine hydrochloride at 283 nm Validation of the method The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, and ruggedness. Linearity study Different aliquots of terbinafine hydrochloride in the range 0.5�C3 ml were transferred into series of 10 ml volumetric flasks, and the volume was made up to the mark with distilled water to get concentrations 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 ��g/ml, respectively. The solutions were scanned on a spectrophotometer in the UV range 200�C400 nm. The spectrum was recorded at 283 nm. The calibration plot was constructed as concentration vs. amplitude [Figure 3]. Figure 3 Calibration curve of terbinafine hydrochloride at 283 nm Accuracy To the preanalysed sample solutions, a known amount of standard stock solution was added at different levels, i.e. 80%, 100%, and 120%.

The solutions were reanalyzed by the proposed method. Precision Precision of the method was studied as intraday and interday variations. Intraday precision was determined by analyzing the 10, 15 and 20 ��g/ml of terbinafine hydrochloride solutions for three times in the same day. Interday precision was determined by analyzing the 10, 15, and 20 ��g/ml of terbinafine hydrochloride solutions daily for 3 days over the period of week. Sensitivity The sensitivity of measurements of terbinafine hydrochloride by the use of the proposed method was estimated in terms of the limit of quantification (LOQ) and limit of detection (LOD). The LOQ and LOD were calculated using equation LOD = 3.3 �� N/B and LOQ = 10 �� N/B, where ��N�� is standard deviation of the peak areas of the drugs (n = 3), taken as a measure of noise, and ��B�� is the slope of the corresponding calibration curve.

Repeatability Repeatability was determined Anacetrapib by analyzing 20 ��g/ml concentration of terbinafine hydrochloride solution for six times. Ruggedness Ruggedness of the proposed method is determined for 20 ��g/ml concentration of terbinafine hydrochloride by analysis of aliquots from a homogenous slot by two analysts using same operational and environmental conditions.

Table 2 Interoperative results

Table 2 Interoperative results selleck expressed as mean �� SD and number (%). Table 3 presents the postoperative results until hospital discharge. At D3, 7 patients had left hospital in the VH group (20%) and 23 in the RH group (40%). No postoperative complications were reported in the VH group while 1 occurred in one RH patient: an abscess of Douglas pouch occurring 10 days after surgery and necessitating antibiotherapy along with a 5-day hospital stay without surgical reintervention. Table 3 Postoperative results expressed as mean �� SD and number (%). The results obtained by the questionnaire completed 2 months after surgery are displayed in Table 4. In the VH group 28 questionnaires (82%) have been completed and 41 (70%) in the RH one. No difference was observed between the two groups regarding sexual life.

In the VH group, among the 16 patients reporting a sexual activity before and after surgery, 8 evaluated it as unchanged, 4 worsened, and 4 improved. In the RH group, among the 20 patients reporting a sexual activity before and after surgery, 16 evaluated it as unchanged, 1 worsened, and 3 improved. Table 4 Results of the questionnaire completed 2 months after surgery expressed as mean �� SD and number (%). 4. Discussion Robotically assisted surgery offers advantages over laparoscopy in hysterectomy procedures for benign disease. The princeps series of Payne and Dauterive [7] showed beneficial results regarding uterine weight, operative time in the 25 last procedures (series of 100 cases), blood loss, laparoconversions, and hospital stay duration.

This author confirmed such results in a meta-analysis [8]. The rate of vaginal cuff dehiscence has been probably overestimated in the first series [9]; it appears to be 1.5% like that observed with laparoscopy [10]. We had no cases of dehiscence in our series: only one case of pelvic abscess that resolved after antibiotherapy. A comparative study of RH and laparoscopic-assisted VH showed that the robotic procedure reduces the operative time and duration of hospital stay with less blood loss [11]. Very few studies have compared RH and VH [12�C15]. Matthews et al. carried out a retrospective analysis of the various surgical approaches used in their department during the first year after robotic equipment was introduced in this unit [12]. They observed beneficial results associated with the robot regarding blood loss, transfusion rate, and infection rate.

In another retrospective series, Landeen et al. [15] compared all surgical approaches for hysterectomy; they underline less blood loss with the robot and reduced hospital stay, while VH was associated with a shortened operative time and reduced cost of the procedure. The two other comparisons were reported in congress abstracts [13, 14]. We found no Anacetrapib randomized study or prospective study on this comparison. Our results are in accordance with those reported in the literature regarding blood loss and duration of hospital stay.

However, if surgical cases did not overlap among reports by even

However, if surgical cases did not overlap among reports by even the same institute, these reports were all included. Reports with fewer than 10 cases of SILC and review articles were excluded from this study. Data extracted for this study were taken from the published reports; authors were not contacted to obtain additional information. All articles selected for SB203580 152121-47-6 full text review were distributed to 2 reviewers (T.M and S.L.), who independently decided on inclusion/exclusion and independently abstracted the study data. Any discrepancies in agreement were resolved by consensus. The flow chart of this selection process is summarized in Figure 2. Figure 2 Flow chart of the selection process for studies included in the systematic review. 2.3.

Result of the Literature Research By using the above search strategy, a total of 249 potentially relevant citations were found. After the exception of 98 duplicated citations, we excluded 86 articles irrelevant of surgical specialty and 37 relevant articles with fewer than 10 cases by reviewing titles and abstracts. 28 publications were selected for review of full text, and 4 studies with no relevant data and 3 review articles were excluded from our paper. Twenty-one studies [19�C39] with a total of 477 patients undergoing SILC met the criteria for analysis providing level 2�C4 evidence (Table 1). There were one multi-institutional study and a total of 9 comparative studies including 6 case-matched ones between SILC and other minimally invasive procedures. There were no randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses in the selected literature.

Table 1 Characteristics of patients undergoing single-incision laparoscopic colorectal surgery. 3. Results 3.1. Indications and SILC Procedures Demographic information and preoperative parameters are shown in Table 1. All studies except 4 performed SILC for colon cancer cases [21, 26, 29, 38]. Among them, 18 studies also included benign colon disease (diverticulitis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, polyps, etc.) [21, 22, 24�C39]. The most common surgical procedures performed in these series were right hemicolectomy (n = 277), followed by sigmoidectomy (n = 81). Anterior resections were performed in 5 of 22 studies (n = 37). Range of body mass index (BMI) was 21.9�C30.0kg/m2 in each study. 3.2. Surgical Instruments AV-951 and Skin Incision Length All studies except one [30] used commercially available single port devices as summarized in Table 3. Chen et al. used a surgical glove attached with three trocars for the purpose of reestablishing the pneumoperitoneum after extraction of the specimen and anastomosis [30]. Ross et al., instead of a single access device, used multiple trocars placed through a single skin incision for some patients [32].

methylohalidivorans cultures

methylohalidivorans cultures sellectchem and Evelyne-Marie Brambilla for DNA extraction and quality control (both at the DSMZ). The work conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute was supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231; AL was supported by Russian Ministry of Science Mega-grant no.11.G34.31.0068; SJ O’Brien Principal Investigator. The work conducted by the members of the Roseobacter consortium was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) Transregio-SFB 51 with PhD stipends for NB and AF. We also thank the European Commission which supported phenotyping via the Microme project 222886 within the Framework 7 program.
Strain G2T (= CSUR P206 = DSM 26159) is the type strain of B. massiliogorillae sp. nov.

This bacterium is a Gram-variable, facultatively anaerobic, indole-negative bacillus having rounded-ends. It was isolated from the stool sample of Gorilla gorilla gorilla as part of a ��culturomics�� study aiming at cultivating bacterial species within gorilla feces. The genus Bacillus (Cohn 1872) was created about 140 years ago [1]. To date this genus, comprised mostly of Gram-positive, motile, and spore-forming bacteria, includes 276 species with validly published names [2]. Members of the genus Bacillus are ubiquitous bacteria isolated from various environments including soil, fresh and sea water, food, and occasionally from humans and animals in which they are either pathogens, such as B. anthracis (the causative agent of anthrax) [3] and B.

cereus (associated mainly with food poisoning) [4], or saprophytes [5]. Bacillus species may also rarely be involved in a variety of human infections, including pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis, endocarditis, endophthalmitis, osteomyelitis and skin/soft tissue infection [5]. However, in great apes, few data are available about the presence of the genus Bacillus. Recent reports have described the isolation of atypical B. anthracis (B. anthracis-like bacteria) in wild chimpanzees and gorillas from Africa [6-8]. Here we present a summary classification and a set of features for B. massiliogorillae sp. nov. strain G2T together with the description of the complete genome sequence and annotation. These characteristics support the circumscription of the species B. massiliogorillae [9].

Classification and features In July 2011, a fecal sample was collected from a wild western lowland gorilla near Messok, a village in the south-eastern part of the DJA FAUNAL Park (Cameroon). The collection of the stool Cilengitide sample was approved by the Ministry of Scientific Research and Innovation of Cameroon. No experimentation was conducted on this gorilla. The fecal specimen was preserved at -80��C after collection and sent to Marseille. Strain G2T (Table 1) was isolated in January 2012 by cultivation on Brucella agar medium (Oxoid, Dardilly, France).

MATERIALS AND METHODS Following the approval of the institutional

MATERIALS AND METHODS Following the approval of the institutional review board, anonymous survey forms, were handed to out to 48 senior year dental students enrolled in Yeditepe University, Faculty of Dentistry. Prior to the study, students were informed that they were not held obliged to complete selleckchem Erlotinib and return the forms and completion of the survey would have no influence on their overall academic grading or performance. Following some demographic information such as age and gender, the students were asked to score some endodontic procedures with different diagnosis, different steps of endodontic treatment as well as types of teeth according to their self-confidence levels. The students used the Lickert’s scoring system from 1-5 to indicate their level of confidence as follows: 1 = Very little confidence, 2 = Little confidence 3 = Neutral 4 = Confident 5 = Very confident.

The survey continued with questions regarding students�� opinion about future endodontic practice while working independently, whether they wish to carry out all endodontic procedures by themselves or whether they would seek for the assistance of a specialist in case they felt necessary. Students were also asked to share the most adverse experience they encountered during endodontic practice so far, if any. They were also asked to pick among some choices regarding the most significant innovation introduced into the science of endodontology that would increase practitioners�� performance in recent years. In the dental school where the study was conducted, students are held obliged to complete approximately 30 root canal treatments during their clinical years in order to be eligible for graduation.

This number is dispersed between the clinical years, starting with a lower number of root canal treatments in the 3rd year, gradually increasing until the senior year. During the survey, they were also inquired about their opinion regarding whether this required number was satisfactory. If case students felt that it wasn’t, they were asked to indicate the minimum number that they thought would be satisfactory to gain adequate proficiency. The survey was completed with a question which asked whether students wished to specialize in the branch of endodontology and additional comments. RESULTS Among the 48 students who were handed out the survey, 42 (88%) returned the forms. Twenty-five students (59.5%) were females whereas 17 (40.5%) were males. The majority (42.9%) of the students rated endodontics AV-951 as 3rd in terms of difficulty [Table 1] among other branches. 11.9% of the students expressed endodontics as the first branch in terms of difficulty.

Rebres et al have demonstrated that SIRP-��-Fc ligation synergiz

Rebres et al. have demonstrated that SIRP-��-Fc ligation synergizes with CD3 for T cell activation and induces PKC �� translocation, resulting in IL-2 production by T cells [19]. DCs, through autocrine secretion of IL-2, trans-present IL-2 to T cells for optimal clonal expansion no and effector function [39]. Thus, in addition to T cell-derived IL-2, DCs also could reverse a CD47low to a CD47high status. We showed here that a CD47high status was maintained on CD4 effectors in inflamed CD tissues. This suggests that auto-aggressive T cells that contribute to tissue destruction, might possess a deregulation in the conformational change process of CD47 which is revealed by an increase in SIRP-��-Fc binding. CD47high status confers resistance to TSP-1-induced killing to CD4 tissue effectors that accumulate in tissues, as we observed abundant TSP-1 release in CD tissues.

In that regard, we recently reported that CD47high status on CD4 effectors identifies functional long-lived memory T cell progenitors [16]. Therefore, maintenance of a CD47high status in pathology may be deleterious to the host and perpetuate chronic inflammatory response. How effector T cell death is regulated during the contraction phase is not fully understood. For many years, the Fas death receptor was considered to be the only T cell surface molecule implicated in the contraction phase of the IR. Fas-mediated signaling leads to activation-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis of TCR-expanded T cells [40], [41]. Mice lacking functional genes for Fas or its ligand (FasL), show uncontrolled lympho-proliferation and developed autoimmunity [42], [43].

CD47 has been linked to Fas [44]. Yet, CD47?/? mice do not display lympho-proliferative disorders as seen in Fas-deficient mice [45]. Fas signaling, like CD47, kills TEM cells and spares TCM as well as TN cells. However, unlike differential CD47 status, Fas expression is similar on TEM and TCM cell subsets [46]. CD47 augments Fas-mediated apoptosis, but CD47-initiated signaling is not required to enable Fas killing. This process is unidirectional since Fas is not necessary for CD47-mediated killing [44]. We thus propose that CD47, rather than Fas-mediated cell death, plays a key role in the dampening of an acute response. We showed here an increased yield of Ag-specific CD47?/? T cells in CD47?/? hosts while Ag-specific CD47+/+ T cell were barely detectable 70 days after primary immunization.

In Drug_discovery fact, the role of Fas in contraction phase has been challenged by Alexander et al, who showed that the elimination of effector T cells is completely independent of caspase activation. Administration of 11 different regimens of a pan-caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe)-?uoromethylketone (zVAD) in vivo showed no significant impact on effector or memory CD8 or CD4 T cell development [4].

After that, the mean value and standard deviation for each parame

After that, the mean value and standard deviation for each parameter were S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase calculated for each group at each time point for statistical analysis. T2 weighted and contrast enhanced-T1 weighted MRI: The residual viable tumor or rim after treatment was visualized as contrast-enhanced, high signal region on the CE-T1W-MRI. The tumor necrotic areas were contoured on CE-T1W-MRI based on the unenhanced, low-signal areas within the tumors that were observed after injection of a contrast agent. Relative volumes (%) of tumor necrosis were calculated by normalizing them to the entire tumor volume. For each lesion, the tumor areas were delineated at T2W-MRI on all slices and automatically combined into the total tumor volume. The tumor volume change (%) was calculated using the following formula: [(volumepost - volumepre)/volumepre] �� 100.

Separate calculation of tumor ADC: For calculating different ADC values, the first step was to measure the entire tumor signal intensity (SI) from original DW-MRI images of 10 b values, respectively. Briefly, for each tumor, freehand delineations were performed on all slices of the original DW-MRI at a b value of 1000 s/mm2. These delineations were merged to form one 3D volume of interest per lesion. The volume of interest was then automatically copied to all images with different b values and the average SI of each lesion per b value was determined. The second step was to obtain separate ADC values according to a monoexponential model using all 10 b values[14].

To differentiate the individual contributions of tissue microcapillary perfusion and pure tissue diffusivity, the ADC values of each tumor were obtained separately for low b values (b = 0, 50, and 100 s/mm2; ADClow) and high b values (b = 500, 750, and 1000 s/mm2; ADChigh) from the average SI per tumor and per b value. Each ADC value was calculated by using a least squares solution of the following system of equations: ADCall: Sk = S0 �� exp (-bk �� ADClow), for k = 0, 50, 100; 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 750, 1000; ADClow: Si = S0 �� exp (-bi �� ADClow), for i = 0, 50, 100; ADChigh: Sj = S0 �� exp (-bj �� ADChigh), for j = 500, 750, 1000; where Sk, Si, and Sj are the SI measured on the DW-MRI acquired with the corresponding b values bk, bi and bj, S0 represents the exact SI (without the influence of noise induced by the MR measurement) with b value equal to 0 s/mm2.

ADClow is perfusion sensitive, while ADChigh is perfusion insensitive. Although ADClow is perfusion sensitive, it is also affected by diffusion effects in tissue[15]. Therefore, an approximate indicator, ADCperf, Anacetrapib for the tissue perfusion contribution can be calculated as ADClow-ADChigh[7]. Imaging software (MeVisLab 2.2.1, MeVis Medical Solutions AG, Bremen, Germany) was used to generate the maps of ADCall, ADChigh, ADClow and ADCperf.

Spectrum of hepatitis virus infection 480 hepatitis B patients wi

Spectrum of hepatitis virus infection 480 hepatitis B patients with or without HDV infection product info were categorized into four clinical stages: (1) Asymptomatic carrier (AC) – patients were clinically asymptomatic with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negative, serum HBV DNA levels are < 105 and normal serum ALT levels (at least 2 ALT values in the previous 6 months follow-up). (2) Immune-tolerant phase (IP) - patients were asymptomatic with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive or negative, high serum HBV DNA levels (�� 105) and normal serum ALT levels (at least 2 ALT values in the previous 6 months). (3) Chronic active hepatitis B (CAH) - patients may be symptomatic or asymptomatic with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive or negative, with raised serum HBV DNA PCR and ALT levels (at least 2 ALT values above ULN in the previous 6 months).

These patients have no evidence of cirrhosis on clinical, biochemical laboratory parameters along with ultrasonological examination. (4) Compensated liver cirrhosis (CLC) – patients may be symptomatic or asymptomatic with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive or negative, whatever are their serum HBV DNA levels, and ALT levels in the previous 6 months. These patients have evidence of cirrhosis identified on clinical, and/or biochemical laboratory parameters along with abdominal ultrasound examination [21,22]. HDV co-infection-patients with anti-HDV reactive and/or HDV RNA PCR detectable [23]. Exclusion criteria We excluded patients (1) under the age of 14 years, (2) with decompensated liver disease (defined by a serum bilirubin more than 2.

5 times the upper limit of normal; prothrombin time > 3 seconds compared with control; serum albumin < 2.5 g/dl; or a history of ascites, variceal hemorrhage or hepatic encephalopathy or hepatocellular carcinoma (3) with evidence of liver disease due to another etiology such as hepatitis C, metabolic liver disease or autoimmune liver disease, (4) history of use of hepatotoxic drugs and (5) patients with multiple infections (i.e. HBV, HDV, HIV and HCV). This study was approved by the Ethics Review Committee (ERC) of Aga Khan University Hospital. Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Science SPSS (Release 17.0, standard version, copyright ? SPSS; 1989-02).

Descriptive Dacomitinib analysis was performed for demographic and clinical features; results were presented as mean �� standard deviation for quantitative variables and number (percentages) for qualitative variables. A descriptive analysis was performed for all patients with HBsAg positive along with HBV DNA PCR detectable. To determine any statistical difference, data were divided into HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative sub-groups. The two groups were compared for demographic and laboratory parameters.