Haemodialysis patients on warfarin should have very close monitoring of INR in dialysis units and the use of heparin for dialysis should be done very thoughtfully. “
“Aim: Renal interstitial fibrosis is the final common pathway determining long-term prognosis of chronic kidney diseases, but its repair process is scarcely understood. Because recent reports indicate that M2 macrophages play important roles in the repair of various tissues, special attention was paid to the phenotypes of infiltrating macrophages in the present study when the histological changes occurring in mouse kidneys after the release of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) inducing renal fibrosis were
analyzed. Methods: The left ureter of male mice was obstructed for 10 days by using a vascular clamp, and that kidney was removed for analysis either on the day when the clamp was removed or Regorafenib after the kidney had been allowed to recover for 3, 7 or 21 days. Results: Interstitial fibrosis assessed by picrosirius red staining decreased with time after the release, and this decrease was paralleled by a decrease in the interstitial area positive for α-smooth muscle actin. Macrophage
infiltration assessed by F4/80 staining also significantly decreased from day VX809 3. In contrast, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the ratios of mRNA for the macrophage scavenger receptor (CD204) and the mannose receptor (CD206), both of which are preferentially expressed on M2 macrophages, to CD68 (a general macrophage marker) were significantly greater on day 7
than on day 0 in the UUO-released mice. Conclusion: Although the total number of infiltrating myofibroblasts and macrophages decreased after UUO release, the ratios of macrophages expressing CD204 and CD206 increased, suggesting that M2 macrophages play an important role in the repair of renal fibrosis. “
“Aim: Studies from the US have shown little effect of ethnicity on vascular calcification in dialysis patients. This has not been examined in the multi-ethnic population of South Africa where genetic and environmental OSBPL9 differences may exist. We assessed the extent and severity of vascular calcification in South African dialysis patients according to race and known risk factors. We further evaluated the association of abdominal aorta calcification with coronary artery calcification. Method: Seventy-five CKD-5D patients and 20 healthy controls were enrolled consecutively. All subjects underwent chest computed tomography for coronary calcium score and abdominal X-ray for abdominal aorta calcium score. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was generated via radial artery applanation tonometry. Results: Coronary calcification was present in 38.6% of patients and was associated with age and prior cardiovascular disease on multivariate analyses.