The majority of patients presented with mild myopathy and promine

The majority of patients presented with mild myopathy and prominent cardiomyopathy. Fifteen of 16 deceased cases died of cardiac causes. Of the 25 patients alive, 24 patients developed cardiac abnormalities with disease progression. Muscle specimens from nine patients were investigated in various morphological examinations. Gene sequencing and cell transfections were performed to determine whether the mutant desmin formed intermediate filaments. Results: Muscle biopsies revealed 5 cases with dystrophy-like patterns and amorphous material

deposits; four other cases showed myopathy-like patterns with cytoplasmic bodies or nemaline bodies. Desmin and multiple proteins aggregated in the affected fibres. Six novel mutations and one previously reported mutation in the desmin gene were identified in the patients. All the mutant desmin genes except E457V produced multiple desmin-positive clumps or abnormal solid large aggregates in transfected cells. Conclusions: This study enlarges the spectrum of desmin mutations and geographic distribution of desminopathy. Although many novel mutations were identified in Chinese patients, the main clinical and myopathological findings were similar to those in Caucasian patients.

Cardiac conduction abnormalities were prominent and usually appeared later than skeletal myopathy. The myopathology exhibited some heterogeneity among our patients, but the pathological changes were not indicative of the mutation location in the desmin gene. Desmin is a primary element of the intermediate filament network in skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle cells. Desmin plays a critical role in connecting myofibrils to each other and to the sarcolemma, mitochondria and nuclei from the periphery CYTH4 of the Z line structures [1]. Desmin protein consists of a highly conserved central α-helical rod domain flanked by globular N-terminal head and C-terminal tail domains. The α-helical rod domain of desmin includes four helixes: 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B [2]. Mutations of the

desmin gene, especially in the helix 2B and 1B of the rod domain, are associated with desminopathy [3–5]. Desminopathy is a major subgroup of myofibrillar myopathy, clinically characterized as cardiac and skeletal myopathy [6,7]. Most cases exhibit an autosomal dominant inherited pattern, but autosomal recessive and de novo mutations are also observed [8,9]. Patients usually become symptomatic in the second to the third decade of life. The most typical symptoms manifest as slowly progressive weakness of distal muscles in the lower limbs, later spreading to the upper limbs, neck, trunk and bulbar muscles [3,10]. However, cardiac symptoms may be dominant in some patients [11–13], and are the leading cause of death in most patients [6,14].

falciparum infection, cytokine

falciparum infection, cytokine JNK inhibitor profiles and their relative balance, not single pro- and anti-inflammatory T helper and T regulatory cytokines, may mediate protective immunity and disease severity [31]. With regard to the regulatory type IL-10, the Th2-type anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-13 disclosed similar levels and dynamics; it was enhanced in MM and SM infants and declined rapidly with parasite clearance following treatment. In 1–4-year-old children with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, increased IL-13 levels

were found [32], which decreased up to day 2 post-treatment. IL-13 provides protection from LPS-induced lethal endotoxaemia similar to but independent from IL-10, and IL-13 can be considered as an immune modulator which might be beneficial in the treatment of septic shock [33]. As revealed recently, IL-13 mediated phagocytosis of P. falciparum-parasitized erythrocytes by alternative activated monocytes [34], and resistance to severe malaria through altered IL-13 production may be associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IL-13 promoter [35]. As a cytokine with dual regulatory capacity, IL-27 will first initiate

Th1-type IFN-γ responses and promote IL-10 synthesis by regulatory T cells, then attenuate inflammatory Th2 and Th17 cells [36] and depress proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines [37]. IL-27R-deficient mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi or Leishmania donovani first controlled parasite replication, but then developed lethal proinflammatory cytokine responses and succumbed to infection [38], and such mice infected with the intestinal helminth Trichuris muris developed an increased production of Th2-associated cytokines and were able to clear intestinal worms very early [39]. IL-27R-deficient Idelalisib research buy mice were susceptible to P. berghei infection and developed Th1-mediated immune responses which, despite efficient parasite clearance, led to severe liver pathology [40]. The regulatory function of IL-27 via the induction of IL-10 and suppression of IL-17 secretion may help to prevented early manifestations of malarial disease, but IL-27 alone may not suffice to prevent chronic infection and severe malaria. The capacity of IL-27 in suppressing Th17-type responses may be critical for pathology prevention; IL-17F levels were similarly high in MM, SM and NEG infants, and the unchanged IL-17F levels post-parasite clearance suggested that IL-17F may not be implicated in malaria progression or regression. Enhanced levels of Th17-associated cytokines have been detected in psoriasis, arthritis, asthma and bacterial and fungal infections [41], and Th17 cells might breach the blood–brain barrier and infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma [42], thereby inducing the production of other proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines which will attract effector cells and provoke tissue inflammation.

For example, at 6 or 7 years after transplantation,


For example, at 6 or 7 years after transplantation,

Keene et al. [46] demonstrated grafted cell survival, as shown by the various striatal markers found within the grafted buy HKI-272 tissue. However, basic markers of cell cytoarchitecture such as haematoxylin & eosin and Nissl reveal that grafted cells depict a morphology very different from host cells [43]. Cells within p-zones are ballooned, vacuolated, lack structural cytoplasmic integrity and even stain positively for apoptotic markers such as caspase-3. When identical immunohistological stainings are compared between the reports by Keene and Cicchetti, and those published for the 6- [22] and 18-month post-transplantation cases [42], it is apparent that grafted striatal projection neurones exhibit a much weaker staining and that they lack dendritic extensions almost completely

[43,45], pointing to a rather unhealthy morphology. In contrast, various subclasses of striatal interneurones including NADPH-d-, ChAT-, parvalbumin- and calretinin-positive cells, show a better long-term survival, suggesting a degeneration or neuronal sparing pattern similar to that observed with HD pathology [42,43,46]. Although there may be signs of degeneration buy ITF2357 within the grafted tissue, ingrowth of host-derived TH fibres can be observed, suggesting connections and interactions between the host and donor cells [43,46]. These results are in accordance with earlier animal model studies as well as transplanted PD patients [55,56]. Such TH innervation was not found in the 10-year post-transplantation case depicting cysts and mass lesions [45], suggesting that TH innervation of grafted tissue is not a random process. However, DARPP-32-

and calbindin-positive Aspartate cells within the grafts do not appear to cross the graft–host interface, suggesting a limited connectivity of the graft with the host brain [46]. One study reported the presence of cortical glutamatergic input onto the grafted striatal cells, using both immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy [43]. Moreover, a notable microglial and astrocytic gliosis was observed in the vicinity of grafted tissue 9–10 years after transplantation [43,44], while such a response was found to be less intense in the graft than in the host at earlier intervals (6 and 7 years) [46]. Finally, elements associated to vasculature and vasculature network, such as endothelial cells and capillaries [stained with Von Willebrand factor (vWF)], pericytes [using platelet derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-β) as a marker] and larger-calibre blood vessels [detected with the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) marker], demonstrated poor revascularization of the grafted tissue [44].

Dissatisfaction was infrequent Conclusion:  This pilot study sug

Dissatisfaction was infrequent. Conclusion:  This pilot study suggests that older patients trained to dialyse at home using PD or HD are highly satisfied with the nephrology service – even when living remote from the nephrology unit. Home-based dialysis is possible in older patients with levels of comorbidity and disease

severity as serious as elsewhere. “
“Prof Terry Cook Professor of Renal Pathology and Deputy Director of the Centre for Complement and Inflammation Research Imperial College Consultant Renal Pathologist in the Imperial Academic Health Science Centre United Kingdom A/Prof Christopher McIntyre Associate Professor of Nephrology School of Graduate Entry Medicine and Health University of Nottingham Hon. Consultant Nephrologist BVD-523 Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust United Kingdom Prof Jean-Paul Soulillou Professor of Immunology University of Nantes France “
“There has been a global decline in the uptake of home-based dialysis therapies in the past 20 years. The ability to provide appropriate information to potential patients in this area may be confounded by a lack of knowledge of home dialysis options. The aim of this study was to develop a web-based education package for health professionals to

increase knowledge and positive perceptions of home-based dialysis options. A three-module e-learning package concerning home dialysis was developed under the auspices of the home dialysis

first project. These modules were tested on 88 undergraduate health professionals. Changes in attitudes and knowledge of home dialysis were measured using custom designed surveys administered electronically to students who completed the modules. Matched pre and post responses to the survey Carbohydrate items were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. The pre survey indicated clear deficits in existing knowledge of home dialysis options. In particular, when asked if haemodialysis could be performed at home, 22% of participants responded ‘definitely no’ and a further 24% responded ‘probably no’. Upon completion of the e-learning, post survey responses indicated statistically significant improvements (P < 0.001) in eight of the nine items. When asked if the e-learning had increased their knowledge about home dialysis, 99% of participants responded ‘definitely yes’. A suite of web-based education modules can successfully deliver significant improvements in awareness and knowledge around home dialysis therapies. "
“Aim:  To evaluate their prognosis, the damage by melamine on children’s kidney and other organs, and its influence on the children’s development, was investigated.

Transfer experiments using OT-II transgenic T cells, which are sp

Transfer experiments using OT-II transgenic T cells, which are specific for an ovalbumin peptide, revealed that T cells that had undergone multiple rounds of cell division up-regulated S1P1 and down-regulated CCR7, and cells that had undergone a high number of divisions were more frequently found in the circulation.[24] Presumably, this would allow effector cells to exit the lymph node and scan the periphery

for antigen. Similarly, transgenic mice over-expressing S1P1 in T cells had increased T cells in blood, had elevated IgE before and after immunization, and exhibited aberrant activation profiles in delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, including decreased cell recruitment to the site of inflammation and lower surface CD69 expression by lymph node T cells.[29] These studies suggest that proper cell activation is a function of cell localization, and a model constructed from balancing lymph node retention find more versus escape mechanisms demonstrates that these signals dictate lymphocyte dwell time within the lymph node, potentially

affecting the generation of the adaptive immune response.[30, 31] Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 is coupled to Gαi, and is therefore pertussis-toxin-sensitive. Signals from S1P1 are transduced via multiple downstream pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase, phospholipase C, phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt and adenylyl cyclase.[32] Activation of these different signalling cascades

is known to result in diverse biological outcomes; however, their applicability to T-cell biology is, in some cases, unknown. For instance, Akt-mediated phosphorylation of S1P1 Olopatadine is required for Rac activation and chemotaxis in endothelial cells, yet it is unclear if this same mechanism is active within T cells.[33] Phosphoinositide 3 kinase and mammalian target for rapamycin are known to affect T-cell trafficking by regulating Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) expression.[34] KLF2 is a transcription factor that can modulate expression of CD62L (l-selectin), CCR7 and S1P1[35, 36] and may maintain T-cell quiescence, as its loss results in unrestrained expression of inflammatory chemokine receptors.[37] Phosphoinositide 3 kinase and/or mammalian target for rapamycin inhibition resulted in higher expression of KLF2, CD62L, CCR7 and S1P1. Lymph node homing chemokine receptors such as CCR7 and CD62L are expressed on naive T cells and are lost on T effector cells, which home to tissues to fight infection.[30] It is unclear how CCR7 is lost while S1P1 surface expression increases when expression of both factors are controlled by KLF2, although post-translational modifiers and protein–receptor interactions may be involved. It is also possible that transcription of S1P1 or CCR7 can be initiated by other transcription factors, since expression of both receptors is dependent on the T-cell developmental stage as well as phenotype and location.

It is also possible that soluble CD23 forms could directly or ind

It is also possible that soluble CD23 forms could directly or indirectly affect the anaphylactic process. It could be interesting to verify our results by analysis of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis in CD23 over expressing transgenic mice [41]. In addition it has been shown that, while CD23 is not expressed on basophils, its expression on B cells might control the size of the free IgE pool [31]. However, our immunization/sensitization experiments suggest

that the main difference in specific IgE production results from the IgE knock-in and not from the CD23 deficiency. With regard to anaphylaxis our data suggest that in a low level IgE production in IgEwt/wt CD23−/− mice the depletion of basophils Caspase inhibitor has comparable little influence on anaphylaxis. However, in the strong active immunization induced antigen-specific IgE response, in both IgEki/wtCD23−/− and IgEki/kiCD23−/− mice, basophil depletion reduces the anaphylaxis symptoms. Therefore, we postulate that basophils need a complex, polyclonal IgE dominated sensitization selleck chemicals llc to act in systemic anaphylaxis, which is probably not reached in passive IgE sensitization

in vivo [38]. The second aspect of the IgE knock-in mice is the lack of IgE+ B cells in vivo. The in vitro experiments demonstrate that stimulation of B cells is able to result in high levels of chimeric IgE expression as membrane bound IgE+ (mIgE) on B cells. The lack of the IgE+ B cells in vivo, in Nb infected mice, implies that either a molecule, which is essential for the expression of mIgE is missing or that an active suppressing factor is inhibiting the expression of membrane IgE+ B cells. Whether this observation is merely a genetic artifact or involves unknown IgE regulating mechanism in vivo needs to be addressed

in future experiments. Nevertheless targeting of IgE by monoclonal antibodies has become a part of human allergy therapy and might benefit from a better understanding of the in vivo expression or location of membrane IgE-positive cells. Finally, recent data by Yang et al. [11] could partially explain this phenotype by a rapid differentiation of an IgE+ B cell into a short-lived plasma B cell. In summary, we present data on a novel in vivo model allowing a more basic approach to examine genetic effects on the regulation Casein kinase 1 of IgE expression. Its usefulness extends our basic understanding of anaphylaxis by suggesting that IgE sensitization of basophils leads to most severe systemic anaphylaxis reactions. Moreover, this model may become a useful tool in decoding the still enigmatic “beneficial role of IgE” in immune homeostasis [20]. We cloned the IgG1 and IgE heavy chain, isolated from129Sv genomic DNA (Supporting Information Fig. 3) and inserted between the last exon for soluble IgG1 and the transmembrane exons a loxP site, and after the last exon for soluble IgE a neomycin resistance cassette (NeoR) and the thymidine kinase (Tk) framed by two loxPs.

Insoluble material was removed

Insoluble material was removed GDC941 by centrifugation at 15 000 g for 15 min at 4°C. The supernatant was saved and the protein concentration was determined using the Bio-Rad protein assay kit (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA). An identical amount of protein (50 μg) for each lysate was subjected to 10% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and then transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane. Western blot analysis using phosphospecific anti-JAKs and STATs antibodies was performed with an ECL Western blotting

kit (Amersham, Little Chalfont, UK). Total RNA was extracted from fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) using the RNeasy total RNA isolation protocol (Qiagen, Crawley, UK). Total cellular RNA was extracted with Trizol (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), according to the manufacturer’s protocol. First-strand cDNA was synthesized from 1 μg of total cellular RNA using an RNA PCR kit (Takara Bio Inc., Otsu, Japan) with random primers. Thereafter, cDNA was amplified using

specific primers for acute phase-SAA (SAA1 + SAA2), respectively. The specific primers used were as follows: A-SAA: forward primer 5′-CGAAGCTTCTTTTCGTTCCTT-3′, reverse primer 5′-CAGGCCAGCAGGTCGGAAGTG-3′; β-actin; and forward primer 5′-GTGGGGCGCCCCAGGCACCA-3′, reverse primer 5′-CTCCTTAATGTCACGCACGATTTC-3′. The product sizes were 300 base pairs (bp) for A-SAA and 234 bp for β-actin. The thermocycling conditions (35 cycles) for the targets click here were as 94°C for 60 s and 53°C for 60 s, and 72°C for 60 s. The PCR products were electrophoresed check details on 2% agarose gels and visualized by ethidium bromide staining. The amplification of the MCP-1 transcripts was performed on a Light Cycler (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) using specific primers. The housekeeping gene fragment of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used for verification of equal loading. To study the role of the JAK-3 pathway in rheumatoid

synovitis, we examined JAK-3 phosphorylation levels using immunohistochemical staining of synovial tissues isolated from RA and OA patients. Fig. 1a shows a representative section of synovial tissues from seven independent patients with RA and two with OA. Brown phospho-JAK-3 staining was observed in the rheumatoid synovium, indicating that infiltrating mononuclear cells in the synovial sublining area expressed high levels of phospho-JAK-3. In contrast, few infiltrating cells in the OA synovium expressed phospho-JAK-3. In immunohistochemical analysis using the serial sections, the immunophenotype of the infiltrates expressing phospho-JAK-3 was found to be predominantly CD3+ T cells, however, some of which expressed vimentin partiality in sublining infiltrating cells (Fig. 1b).

A Carr (Center of Molecular Immunology, Havana, Cuba) L1210 mur

A. Carr (Center of Molecular Immunology, Havana, Cuba). L1210 murine lymphocytic leukemia cell line was obtained

from the American Tissue Type Culture Collection. L1210 cmah-kd cell line was generated in our institution as previously described [46] by CMP-Neu5Ac-neuraminic acid hydroxylase gene knock-down using a specific shRNA. Cells were grown in DMEM (Gibco-BRL, Paisley, UK) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated FCS (Invitrogen, USA), 2 mM L-glutamine, 25 mM HEPES, 100 U/mL penicillin, 100 μg/mL streptomycin, and maintained at 37°C with 5% CO2. L1210 cells were treated with trypsin (Gibco) 0.05% for 5 min at 37°C for testing the importance of the gangliosides in binding and cytotoxicity experiments. Fresh blood from healthy volunteers was centrifuged over a Ficoll-Hypaque see more density gradient to obtain PBMCs as described earlier [47]. One hundred normal serum samples were obtained from healthy adults of both genders and various ethnic backgrounds. None of the donors presented the evidence of infectious disease, cancer, atherosclerosis, or autoimmune diseases at the

time of blood collection. Cancer patients’ Cisplatin manufacturer sera were obtained from 53 advanced NSCLC patients who had not been exposed to any antitumor treatment, with approval from the Institutional Review Board of the Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital. The cancer patients were gender- and age-matched with the healthy donors. Written informed consent was obtained in advance from all the volunteers. The serum samples were decomplemented by heat inactivation for 30 min at 56°C. All sera were stored at –20°C until use. Anti-NeuGcGM3

antibodies present in human sera were detected by ELISA with some modifications as previously described [48]. Briefly, 96-well polystyrene plates (PolySorp, Nunc, Denmark) were coated with NeuGcGM3 PIK3C2G or NeuAcGM3 at a saturating concentration of 200 ng/well in methanol. Plates were allowed to dry for 2 h at 37°C and then blocked with 4% human serum albumin in PBS for 2 h at 4°C. Control wells, coated only with methanol, were equally treated with blocking solution. Diluted human sera (1/50 in PBS-0.4% human serum albumin) were added to the wells and incubated overnight at 4°C. The plates were washed six times with PBS containing 0.1% Tween 20 (PBST) and then incubated with biotin-conjugated goat antihuman IgG + IgM (Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories, Inc, West Grove, PA, USA) for 1.5 h at RT. After washing in the same conditions, alkaline phosphatase conjugated streptavidin (Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories) was added and incubated for an additional 1.5 h at RT. Finally, a substrate solution consisting of 1 mg/mL p-nitrophenylphosphate in diethanolamine buffer, pH 9.8, was added to the plates and the absorbance was measured at 405 nm in an ELISA reader (Organon Teknika, Salsburg, Austria). To consider that a serum sample had a positive reaction to a particular ganglioside, values of absorbance had to be ≥0.

The unique regulation and patterning of B7 family molecules

The unique regulation and patterning of B7 family molecules

in the placenta, together Y-27632 molecular weight with emerging empirical data, suggests that these proteins may play an important role in shaping the milieu of the local maternal–fetal environment. In addition, the nature of the costimulatory and co-inhibitory signals B7 family members provide will also influence the outcome of the interaction of maternal lymphocytes with fetal antigen in lymphoid tissues. From the experimental data in humans, we can infer that B7 family proteins could function in at least three distinct capacities (Fig. 4). First, the B7 expressing cells in pregnancy that could function as APCs, i.e., those that express both B7 molecules and MHC, may directly influence T-cell activation and effector functions by delivering a positive or negative costimulatory signal in conjunction with TCR stimulation. Second, trophoblast cells that repress MHC might affect lymphocytes through B7/CD28 family molecules

in trans. Finally, B7 molecules on either decidual APCs or trophoblast cells may backsignal toward the B7-expressing cell and influence the local immune environment through induced expression of immunosuppressive selleck screening library factors independently of their effects on T cells. Thus, in determining the functions of these key regulators of the immune system, there is a need to think ‘outside the box’ when considering B7 family molecules during pregnancy. The authors thank Sarika Kshirsagar and Joseph

Juscius for their technical contributions and Stanton Fernald (University of Kansas Interdisciplinary Center for Male Contraceptive Research & Drug Development Imaging Core) for assistance with images. A.L.P. is supported by NIH training grant T32HD007455. This work is supported by NIH grants R01 HD045611, P01 HD049480, and P20 RR16475. “
“Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in the innate immune response, recognizing a variety of molecular structures characteristic of pathogens. Although TLR4, together with its co-receptor MD-2, recognize bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and therefore Gram-negative bacterial infections, it also plays a key role Acyl CoA dehydrogenase in many other pathophysiological processes, including sterile inflammation and viral infection. Specifically, numerous endogenous agonists of TLR4 of notably diverse nature, ranging from proteins to metal ions, have been reported. Direct activation of a single receptor by such a range of molecular signals is very difficult to explain from a structural and mechanistic point of view. It is likely that only a subset of these directly activate the TLR4-MD2 complex. We propose three postulates aimed at distinguishing the direct agonists of TLR4 from indirect activators.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and an

The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and antifungal resistance of 1694 isolates of non-CA-CSP collected during the period 2006–2011. Isolates were recovered in 33 hospitals located in four regions: Northcentral, North-east, South-east and West and tested using CLSI reference broth microdilution methods. Non-CA-CSP represented 55.6% of all Candida. C. glabrata was most predominant (39–42% of non-CA-CSP). Infections due to C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. dubliniensis increased over the 6 years. Anidulafungin (3.6%) and caspofungin (5.7%) resistance were prominent among C. glabrata from the North-east and

West regions respectively. Resistance to micafungin was detected in 2.0% and 2.9% of C. glabrata from the West and North-east regions respectively. Midostaurin in vitro Echinocandin resistance was low, except for C. dubliniensis. Azole resistance was most prominent among C. glabrata from the South-east (13.6% fluconazole R) and the West (18.0%). Cross-resistance among three tested azoles was observed in C. glabrata from all regions. Whereas differences in species distribution and antifungal R varied across geographic regions, there was little evidence of temporal increase in resistance to azoles or echinocandins in the monitored non-CA-CSP. “
“The objective of this study was to compare optical coherence tomography

(OCT) with conventional techniques such as KOH-preparation, culture and histology in the identification of the fungal elements in the nail. A total of 18 patients were examined; 10 with clinically evident onychomycosis in toe nails, two with psoriatic nail lesions, one with nail affection EPZ-6438 supplier caused by lichen planus and five healthy controls. Serial in vivo OCT Bay 11-7085 analyses of onychomycosis was performed prior to KOH-preparation, culture and punch biopsy of the nail plate for consecutive histology. Fungal elements were detected non-invasively in vivo using OCT in all 10 patients with histologically proven onychomycosis. Fungal elements were detectable as highly scattering elongated structures inside the nail plate, in the middle of the

areas of homogeneous decrease in signal intensity. KOH-preparations and culture did reveal a positive result in 5/6 out of 10 patients. In patients with psoriasis, lichen planus as well as in the healthy controls, no fungal infection could be detected by either method used. OCT is a reliable, easy to use, non-invasive and non-destructive method to visualise fungal elements in vivo in onychomycosis, even in cases of false negative KOH-preparation and culture. Furthermore, OCT offers the opportunity to screen several areas of the same nail plate and to detect fungal elements during local or systemic therapy. “
“Fungi–bacteria interactions can impact the course of fungal infection and biotechnological use. The mucoralean fungus Rhizopus microsporus, traditionally used in food fermentations (tempe and sufu), is frequently accompanied by Burkholderia gladioli pv.