It may not be as useful to patients with more severe TBI Dinaciclib purchase because they are largely amnesic of their trauma. As noted above, some severe TBI patients can have nightmares or intrusive memories on the basis of reconstructions of their trauma; in these cases, imaginable exposure to those mental representations that are causing anxiety. In most cases of moderate/severe TBI, however, it is more
useful to employ in vivo exposure because reminders of the trauma can elicit stronger anxiety in the absence of actual memories or images. A survivor of a motor vehicle accident who sustained a severe TBI may experience marked fear when watching film footage of traffic; in such a case, the patient could complete exposure by repeatedly watching Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical traffic footage. Through these techniques it would be hoped that extinction learning can be achieved, even though the patient may never retrieve direct memories of the traumatic event. Conclusions The coexistence of TBI and PTSD is frequent, and the extent to which the symptoms of TBI and PTSD are confused may be as frequent. Increasing evidence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical indicates that many previously termed PCS responses are a function of psychological responses, and it hampers a patient’s recovery if they mistakenly perceive these
reactions as indicators of a brain Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical injury that may be permanent. In this sense, the field is recognizing the distinction between TBI as an event rather than a syndrome, whereas PTSD Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or PCS are symptoms that arise secondary to the event. The likelihood that the presumed secpelae of MTBI are actually attributed to psychological responses to the traumatic experience is becoming more apparent. Accurate identification of the true nature and
cause of the symptoms experienced after TBI is important because if stress-related disturbances are mistakenly attributed to neurological factors, patients may be deprived Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of effective treatments that can, in most cases, alleviate the symptoms. As we learn more about the interaction of TBI and PTSD, it seems that we will be discovering much about how the brain responds to traumatic experiences, both in found cases when there has and has not been a TBI. Understanding this interaction between neurological insult and psychological response has the potential to shed light on the key mechanisms underpinning trauma response generally, and how it is impacted by different levels of brain injury.
Psychological trauma can result from witnessing an event that is perceived to be life-threatening or to pose the potential of serious bodily injury to self or others. Such experiences, which are often accompanied by intense fear, horror, and helplessness, can lead to the development of, and are required for the diagnosis of, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).1 It was originallythought that PTSD represented a normative response, at the extreme end of a response continuum, the severity of which related primarily to trauma/stressor intensity.