METHODS AND MATERIALS Facial skin aging assessments performed by

METHODS AND MATERIALS Facial skin aging assessments performed by four blinded dermatologists were correlated with plasma isoprostane levels

in 46 healthy, nonsmoking Japanese women aged 45 to 60. RESULTS Individuals whose assessed skin age exceeded chronological age had mean plasma isoprostane levels of PGF2a and 8-iso-PGF2a that were higher than those whose skin age was assessed to be less than chronological age ( p =.001 and.001, respectively). These results remained statistically significant when adjusted for confounding variables ( 8-iso-PGF2a, p =.02; PGF2a, p =.03).

CONCLUSIONS Plasma isoprostanes as markers of accelerated aging of the skin merit further study.”
“Despite learn more extensive research, the mortality associated with sepsis in hospitals remains very high. We have evaluated the protective immunomodulatory effect of thalidomide alone or with Augmentin in Klebsiella GSK690693 pneumoniae B5055-induced sepsis in BALB/c mice. The mouse model of sepsis was developed by placing K. pneumoniae B5055 entrapped in fibrin and thrombin clots in

the peritoneal cavity of mice. The septic mice were treated with thalidomide alone (30 mg/kg/day/po), Augmentin alone (20 mu g/ml/ip) and with their combination. The thalidomide-alone treated mice showed 75% survival whereas 60% of the Augmentin-alone treated group survived. Combination treatment provided 100% survival. Treatment with thalidomide alone significantly (p<0.05) decreased interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the serum without significantly (p<0.05) decreasing the bacterial count in blood. Augmentin alone

only decreased the bacterial load in blood significantly (p<0.05). However, a combination of thalidomide with Augmentin significantly (p<0.05) decreased both the bacterial count and inflammatory mediators.”
“OBJECTIVE: The delay between the availability of clinical evidence and

its application to the care of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia remains undefined. The Saudi Project for

Assessment of Coronary Events HDAC 抑制剂 (SPACE) registry provides a comprehensive

view of the current diagnostic and treatment strategies for patients

with ACS; thus, the registry may be used to identify opportunities to

improve the care of these patients.

METHODS: Eight hospitals in different regions of Saudi Arabia were

involved in the pilot phase of the registry, from December 2005 to

July 2006. The study patients included individuals with ST segment elevation

myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI and unstable angina.

RESULTS: A total of 435 patients (77% men and 80% Saudis) with a mean

age of 57.1 years were enrolled.

The median time to progression (TTP)

The median time to progression (TTP) learn more was 5.7 months (95% C.I. 3.1-8.6 months) with a median overall survival (MOS) of 9 months (95% C.I. 4.4-13.9 months). Toxicity was mild with no cases of febrile neutropenia;

5 patients (14%) developed grade 2 neuropathy. Our study confirms the substantial activity of weekly regimen of paclitaxel and carboplatin. Due to its favorable profile of toxicity this schedule could represent an interesting therapeutic option in selected chemonaive elderly patients with advanced NSCLC.”
“Free electron concentration and carrier mobility measurements on 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor inversion layers are reported in this article. The key finding is that in state-of-the-art nitrided AZD6738 gate oxides, loss of carriers by trapping no longer plays a significant role in the current degradation under heavy inversion conditions. Rather, it is the low carrier mobility (maximum similar to 60 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) that limits the channel current. The measured free carrier

concentration is modeled using the charge-sheet model and the mobility is modeled by existing mobility models. Possible mobility mechanisms have been discussed based on the modeling results. (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3484043]“
“Purpose. At 14:28 hours on May 12, 2008, a massive earthquake wracked most areas of Sichuan, China, causing catastrophic human loss. The aim of this study was to delineate the characteristics of victims with maxillofacial fractures in this disaster.

Patients and methods. A descriptive analysis was conducted based on the medical records of AZD1080 earthquake maxillofacial injuries casualties transferred to West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, after the earthquake. Data regarding demographic details, psychological status, patterns,

anatomic sites, etiology, concomitant injuries, and management of earthquake maxillofacial fractures were evaluated.

Results. A total of 46 maxillofacial fracture patients’ records of 28 (60.9%) males and 18 (39.1%) females were included in this study, with peak incidence (32.6%) in the elderly age group (older than 50 years). The most common etiology of earthquake maxillofacial fractures was building collapse (71.7%). The mandible (65.2%) was the most frequent site of the maxillofacial fracture, followed by the zygomatic complex (21.7%) and maxilla (13.0%). The most prevalent of maxillofacial fracture pattern was multiple and/or comminuted fractures (56.5%), which accounted for 72.7% (24/33) in building collapse injury group. There were 9 (19.6%) patients with significant concomitant injuries and the most common site of concomitant injuries was the head (4 cases) and extremity (4 cases). Four (8.7%) patients’ maxillofacial fractures were treated conservatively, 16 (34.8%) underwent closed reduction and fixation, and 26 (56.5%) underwent open reduction and rigid internal fixation (RIF). Apart from 3 patients (6.

Medical history and clinical and radiologic examination findings

Medical history and clinical and radiologic examination findings were recorded to evaluate demographics, etiology, presentation, and type of facial fracture, as

well as its relationship to dental injury site and type.

Results: In 273 patients with dentition, we recorded 339 different facial fractures. Of these patients, 130 (47.5%) sustained a fracture in the non-tooth-bearing region, 44 (16%) had a fractured maxilla, and 65 (24%) had a fractured mandible. Among 224 patients Y-27632 order with dentition who had a facial fracture in only I compartment, 140 injured teeth were found in 50 patients. Of 122 patients with an injury limited to the non-tooth-bearing facial skeleton, 12 sustained dental trauma (10%). In patients with fractures limited to the maxilla (n = 41), 6 patients had dental injuries

(14.5%). In patients with fractures to the mandible (n = 61), 24 sustained dental injuries (39%). When we compared the type of tooth lesion and the location, simple crown fractures prevailed in both jaws. Patients with a fracture of the mandible were most likely to have a dental injury (39.3%). The highest incidence of dental lesions was found in the maxilla in combination with fractures of the lower jaw (39%). This incidence was even higher than the incidence of dental lesions in the lower jaw in combination Tucidinostat mouse with fractures of the mandible (24%).

Conclusions: Knowledge of the association of dental injuries and maxillofacial fractures is a basic tool for their prevention. Our study showed that in cases of trauma with mandibular fracture, the teeth in the upper jaw might be at higher risk than the teeth in the lower jaw. Further larger-scale studies on this topic could clarify this finding and may

provide suggestions for the amelioration of safety devices (such as modified bicycle helmets). (C) 2009 American Ferroptosis 抑制剂 临床试验 Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons J Oral Maxillofac Surg 67:1680-1684, 2009″
“To elucidate the epigenetic maintenance mechanism for functional plant centromeres, we studied transcriptional regulation of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENH3 in Arabidopsis thaliana. We focused on the structure and activity of the CENH3 promoter (CENH3pro) and its regulation by E2F transcription factors. Use of CENH3pro::GUS reporter gene constructs showed that CENH3pro is active in dividing tissues, and that full expression in root meristems depends on intragenic regulatory elements within the second intron. Chromatin immunoprecipitation identified CENH3 as an E2F target gene. Transient co-expression of a CENH3pro:: GUS reporter gene construct with various E2F transcription factors in A. thaliana protoplasts showed that E2Fa and E2Fb (preferentially with dimerization protein DPb) activate CENH3pro.

Design and Methods: ADAMTS13 contributes to vWF levels, and we in

Design and Methods: ADAMTS13 contributes to vWF levels, and we investigated genetic polymorphisms previously described to be associated with decreased levels of these proteins

in 435 patients with DVT (126 M and 309 F; median age 37 years, range 18-68 years) and 580 controls (163 M and 417 F; median age 35 years, range 18-68 years). Subsequently, we investigated the relationship between the genotypes and plasma levels of FVIII, vWF, and DVT risk. Results: Patients BAY 1895344 ic50 with DVT showed higher plasma levels of FVIII: C, FVIII:Ag, and vWF: Ag (P < .001) when compared to controls. Patients and controls heterozygous for the 4751A>G polymorphism in the vWF gene presented decreased levels of vWF: Ag, FVIII: Ag, and FVIII: C (P < .001), but this was not a protective factor for DVT. Individuals heterozygous for 1852C>G polymorphism in ADAMTS13 gene, which is associated with reduced levels of ADAMTS13, had significantly elevated levels of vWF: Ag (P = .001), FVIII: Ag (P = .01), and FVIII: C (P = .02). However, this polymorphism was not a risk factor

for DVT in our study. Heterozygosis for a new polymorphism identified in ADAMTS13 gene, 1787-26G>A, was significantly associated with elevated levels of FVIII: C (P = .02) when compared to wild type. Conclusions: Despite the tempting assumption that genetic factors that change

ADAMTS13 activity might modulate the risk of DVT find protocol by altering vWF and FVIII levels, the polymorphisms analyzed in this study did not correlate with DVT risk among patients investigated.”
“Trigeminal schwannomas extending into the deep parapharyngeal space are relatively rare, and a surgical approach to such tumors has not been well established. We report four cases in which the tumors were completely removed by using a combination of three approaches.

Four patients with trigeminal schwannomas extending into the extracranial space were surgically treated using a combination of the transcervical approach, anterolateral Selleckchem GSK3235025 retromaxillar pathway via gingivobuccal sulcus, and epi and interdural middle fossa approach.

The maximum diameters of the tumors ranged from 4 to 7 cm. Three tumors extended beyond the lower end of the maxillary sinus. All tumors were completely excised. The Karnofsky performance scales after surgery were more than 90% in all patients.

Although the tumors extending to the deep parapharyngeal space are difficult to completely remove via a single approach, a combined approach is useful in these huge extracranial extensions.”
“Abatacept (CTLA-Ig), a modulator of T-lymphocyte activation, has been approved by the Swiss health regulatory agency Swissmedic for the treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Results show that both WKY and SHR have complementary, yet signif

Results show that both WKY and SHR have complementary, yet significantly asymmetric perfusion territories. Right or left dominances were observed in territories of the anterior (ACA), middle and posterior cerebral arteries, and the thalamic artery. Magnetic resonance angiography showed that some of the asymmetries were correlated with variations of the

ACA. The leptomeningeal circulation perfusing the outer layers of the cortex was observed as well. Significant and permanent changes in perfusion territories were obtained after temporary occlusion of the JQ1 in vitro right middle cerebral artery in both SHR and WKY, regardless of their particular dominance. However, animals with right dominance presented a larger volume change of the left perfusion territory (23 +/- 9%) than animals with left dominance (7 +/- 5%, P<0.002). The data suggest that animals with contralesional dominance primarily safeguard local CBF values with small changes in contralesional perfusion territory, while animals with ipsilesional dominance show a reversal of dominance and a substantial increase in contralesional perfusion territory. These findings show the usefulness of CASL to probe the collateral circulation.”
“Background and Purpose: Incidental detection of small renal masses has significantly increased over the last two decades with the advent of cross-sectional

imaging. The shift in stage has been met with a shift in treatment modality because

the preservation of renal parenchyma can prevent adverse outcomes. Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN) needs significant surgeon expertise, and preoperative planning is imperative.

Patients and Methods: Between December 2010 and September 2011, virtual surgical planning (VSP) was used in consecutive patients with renal tumors that were suspicious for renal-cell carcinoma who were undergoing RALPN by a single surgeon. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions were Ilomastat mw examined and manipulated preoperatively, and an operative plan formulated. Intraoperative anatomy and preoperative 3D reconstructions were compared in real time.

Results: A total of 10 patients underwent RALPN with preoperative VSP. Average patient age at intervention was 54.6 years and average tumor size was 4.3 cm (range 1.7-7.5 cm). Tumor laterality was evenly distributed. Nephrometry score ranged from 5A to 10P, and final tumor pathology results revealed malignancy in 80%. No complications occurred intraoperatively, and an excellent correlation was noted between preoperative 3D reconstruction and intraoperative anatomy. All patients underwent a successful partial nephrectomy with no positive margins on final pathology results. Mean length of surgery was 232.9 minutes (range 156-435 min), and mean estimated blood loss was 370 mL (range 75-1800 mL). Warm ischemia time ranged from 20 to 50 minutes (mean 33.9 min).

02), stenosis determined based on small branch pulmonary artery d

02), stenosis determined based on small branch pulmonary artery diameter was correlated to a prolonged interval to pulmonary valve replacement (P = .009). Initial diagnosis, prior palliative shunt operation, and degree of pulmonary regurgitation had no effect on the interval between pulmonary valve disruption and subsequent pulmonary valve replacement. As determined

by using multivariate analysis, only male sex and small pulmonary artery diameter remained significant BAY 11-7082 cost factors.

Conclusions: Male sex appears to shorten the interval between pulmonary valve disruption and pulmonary valve replacement, whereas small branch pulmonary artery diameter appears to lengthen the interval. Knowing which factors are detrimental and which are protective might help identify patients who are prone to a more rapid progression of right heart failure from free pulmonary insufficiency, possibly steering them toward Cl-amidine mouse more frequent follow-up or more aggressive heart failure medical regimens.”
“Bacopa monnieri, Linn. (Brahmi, BM), traditionally used to improve mental health in Indian ayurvedic system of medicine is known to possess various neuropharmacolgical properties. In the recent past, Drosophila has been widely used as a model to study various neurodegenerative

diseases. Environmental toxins like rotenone, a specific inhibitor of complex I is employed to increase oxidative stress mediated neuropathology and sporadic Parkinson’s disease. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective properties of BM against rotenone induced oxidative damage and neurotoxicity. Flies (Oregon K strain, adult males) exposed to a standardized BM powder for 7 days in the diet exhibited significant diminution in the levels of endogenous oxidative markers viz., malondialdehyde. hydroperoxide and protein carbonyl content. Further, BM offered complete protection against rotenone selleck (500 mu M) induced oxidative stress and markedly inhibited dopamine depletion (head region,

33%; body region, 44%) in flies. Flies exposed to rotenone + BM exhibited a lower incidence of mortality (40-66% protection) and per-formed better in a negative geotaxis assay (45-65%) both suggesting the neuroprotective potential of BM. Interestingly, BM also conferred significant resistance (43-54% protection) in a paraquat oxidative stress bioassay. The neuroprotective effects of BM were highly comparable to those of a commercially available Brahmi preparation. Although the precise mechanism/s underlying the neuroprotective efficacy of BM are not clear, it is hypothesized that it is wholly or in part related to its ability to mitigate rotenone induced oxidative stress. Further, our approach confirms the utility of the Drosophila model in screening putative neuroprotective phytomedicines prior to their use in mammalian models. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc.

Postcontrast HU evaluations were done at the nephrographic phase

Postcontrast HU evaluations were done at the nephrographic phase of the procedure. Tumor HU values were compared according to histological subtype, tumor grade and pathological stage.

Results: Mean +/- SD patient

age was 57 +/- 13 years and mean tumor size was 4.8 +/- 2.7 cm. Postcontrast HU and contrast difference values were significantly lower in the malignant group. A cutoff HU value of 138 HU (mean AUC 0.893 +/- 0.027, 95% CI 0.84-0.94) differentiated renal cell cancer from oncocytoma with 88% sensitivity and 87% specificity. Low and high grade cases demonstrated similar precontrast and postcontrast HU, and contrast difference values. These enhancement parameters were significantly lower for higher stage (pT2-3) renal cell cancer than for pT1. We detected higher postcontrast values (mean 62 +/- 14 vs 56 +/- 39 HU, p = 0.011) and contrast difference values (mean 92 +/- 15 vs 82 +/- 42 HU, p = 0.034) for high grade than for low grade renal cell cancer in patients with tumors 4 cm or less.

Conclusions: The degree of enhancement on computerized tomography helps differentiate tumor characteristics. These outcomes may help the clinician with prognostic evaluation and may augment the role of computerized tomography in therapeutic planning.”

responsibility is increasingly regarded a pathogenetic mechanism in obsessive-compulsive DihydrotestosteroneDHT clinical trial disorder (OCD). In seeming contrast, there is mounting evidence that latent aggression is also elevated in OCD. Building upon psychodynamic theories that an altruistic facade including exaggerated concerns for others is partly a defense against latent aggression, evidence was recently obtained for high interpersonal ambivalence in OCD patients relative to psychiatric and healthy controls using a newly developed instrument entitled the Responsibility and Interpersonal Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire (RIBAQ). A total of 46

OCD patients and 23 healthy participants took part in the present study. OCD patients displayed a higher social responsibility than controls. At the same time, patients also disclosed more latent aggression/calculating behavior and interpersonal distrust. While the pathogenic role of latent aggression VX-770 nmr is still not fully uncovered, it may deserve more consideration in treatment in view of frequent tensions in the families of OCD patients. Longitudinal studies with at-risk sample are needed to assess the relationship between problems with anger expression as well as (exaggerated) moral standards in OCD. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: We assess the accuracy of a biopsy directed treatment algorithm in correctly assigning active surveillance vs treatment in patients with small renal masses by comparing biopsy results with final surgical pathology.

Materials and Methods: From 1999 to 2011, 151 patients with small renal masses 4 cm or smaller underwent biopsy and subsequent surgical excision.

No signs

of clotting or other technical incidents were re

No signs

of clotting or other technical incidents were recorded. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011;141:1145-9)”
“The development of ectopic neural discharge at a site of peripheral nerve injury is thought to contribute to the initiation of sensory disturbances and pain. We have previously shown that this discharge can be initiated or increased by the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). We have now studied a potential therapeutic approach to reducing the discharge by evaluating the effect of a systemically administered monoclonal antibody to CGRP on injury-induced activity in the lingual nerve. In 16 anaesthetised adult ferrets the left lingual nerve was sectioned. One day after the injury, Selleck Paclitaxel the animals received a subcutaneous injection of either a monoclonal antibody to CGRP or a vehicle control. Three days after the injury, under a second anaesthetic, single-unit electrophysiological recordings were made from central to the injury site (469 and 391 units

were analysed in antibody and vehicle groups, respectively), and the proportion of units that were spontaneously active was determined. In the vehicle-treated animals 6.4 +/- this website 2.7 [SEM]% of the units were spontaneously active, with conduction velocities of 8.8-40.8 m/s and discharge frequencies of 0.03-2.7 Hz. In the monoclonal antibody-treated animals 5.7 +/- 2.0% of the units were spontaneously active, with conduction velocities of 13.9-38.8

m/s and discharge frequencies of 0.07-1.8 Hz. There was no significant difference between these two groups (for spontaneous activity and conduction velocity: p > 0.05, Student’s t-test; for discharge frequency: p > 0.05. Mann-Whitney test), suggesting that the spontaneous activity initiated by a nerve injury cannot be modulated by administration of a monoclonal antibody JQ-EZ-05 ic50 to CGRP. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: We evaluated results of an echocardiographically based strategy combining mitral annuloplasty with other procedures to treat chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation.

Methods: From March 2006 to February 2009, 147 patients underwent mitral valve surgery for chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation. Mean effective regurgitant orifice was 36 +/- 11 mm(2), and ejection fraction was 35% +/- 9%. On the basis of echocardiographic findings, in 10 cases a prosthesis was inserted and mitral annuloplasty was performed in 137 cases, isolated in 83, associated with chordal cutting in 12 cases (in 5 anterior leaflet was augmented with pericardial patch), and with exclusion of anteroseptal (n = 35) or inferior (n = 7) scars in 42.

Results: Thirty-day mortality was 4.8%; 3-year survival was 86% +/- 3%.

Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has a very high

Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has a very high negative predictive value for the detection of coronary

disease, but its usefulness in determining whether discharge of patients from the emergency department is safe is not well established.


We randomly assigned low-to-intermediate-risk patients presenting with possible acute coronary syndromes, in a 2: 1 ratio, to undergo CCTA or to receive traditional care. Patients were enrolled at five centers in the United States. Patients older than 30 years of age with a Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction risk score of 0 to 2 and signs or symptoms warranting admission or testing were eligible. The primary outcome was safety, assessed in the subgroup of patients with a negative CCTA examination, with safety defined as the absence of myocardial infarction and cardiac Nepicastat concentration death during the first 30 days after presentation.


We enrolled 1370 subjects: 908 in the CCTA group and 462 in the group receiving traditional care. The baseline Stattic characteristics were similar in the two groups. Of 640 patients with a negative CCTA examination, none died or had a myocardial infarction within 30 days (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0 to 0.57). As compared with patients

receiving traditional care, patients in the CCTA group had a higher rate of discharge from the emergency department (49.6% vs. 22.7%; difference, 26.8 percentage points; 95% CI, 21.4 to 32.2), a shorter length of stay (median, 18.0 hours vs. 24.8 hours; P<0.001), and a higher rate of detection of coronary disease (9.0% vs. 3.5%; difference,

5.6 percentage points; 95% CI, 0 to 11.2). There was one serious adverse event in each group.


A CCTA-based strategy for low-to-intermediate-risk patients presenting with a possible acute coronary syndrome appears selleck products to allow the safe, expedited discharge from the emergency department of many patients who would otherwise be admitted. (Funded by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Health and the American College of Radiology Imaging Network Foundation; number, NCT00933400.)”
“Aims: To investigate the antibiofilm effect of cinnamaldehyde on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and analyse the effect of subminimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of cinnamaldehyde on the expression of the biofilm-related gene sarA.

Methods and Results: The MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined using a microtitre broth dilution method. Biofilm susceptibility was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) staining and colony forming unit (CFU) counting assays.

The results provide evidence for task-specific compensatory recru

The results provide evidence for task-specific compensatory recruitment in parietal cortex as well as task-independent compensatory recruitment in prefrontal Elacridar in vitro cortex in normal aging. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. Limited information exists on the relationship between specific chronic somatic conditions and care for co-morbid depression in primary care settings.

Therefore, the present prospective, general practice-based study examined this relationship.

Method. Longitudinal data on morbidity, prescribing and referrals concerning 991 patients newly diagnosed with depression by their general practitioner (GP) were analysed. The influence of a broad range of 13 specific chronic somatic conditions on the initiation of any depression care, as well as the prescription of continuous antidepressant therapy for 180 days, was examined. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to control for history of depression, psychiatric co-morbidity, sociodemographics and interpractice variation.

Results. Multilevel analysis showed that patients with pre-existing ischaemic heart disease (72.1%) or cardiac arrhythmia (59.3%) were significantly less GDC-0449 cost likely to have any depression

care being initiated by their GP than patients without chronic somatic morbidity (88.0%). No other specific condition had a significant influence on GP initiation of any care for depression. Among the

patients being prescribed antidepressant treatment by their GP, none of the conditions was significantly associated with being prescribed continuous treatment for 180 days.

Conclusions. Our study indicates that patients with ischaemic heart disease or cardiac arrhythmia have a lower likelihood of GP initiation of any care for depression after being newly diagnosed with depression by their GP. This finding points to the importance of developing interventions aimed at supporting selleck GPs in the adequate management of comorbid depression in heart disease patients to reduce the negative effects of this co-morbidity.”
“Salmonellae are enterobacteria that have the unique ability to change their flagellar composition by switching expression among two loci that encode the major flagellin protein. This property is not available to all Salmonella, but is species, subspecies and serotype specific. Curiously, the subsequent loss of the second locus in some lineages of Salmonella has apparently been tolerated and, indeed, has led to considerable success for some lineages. We discuss here an evolutionary model for maintenance of this unique function and the possible evolutionary advantages of loss or preservation of this mechanism. We hypothesize that the second flagellin locus is a genetic ‘spare tyre’ used in particular environmental circumstances.