, 2009) We used the statistical software R 2 13 0 (R Development

, 2009). We used the statistical software R 2.13.0 (R Development Core Team, 2011) and the add-on packages lme4 (Bates et al., 2011) and MuMIn (Bartoń, 2011). From the original number of L. pulmonaria transplants in 1994 (1120), 28% (313) were lost due to tree fall or that the transplant net had fallen off, and from the remaining 807 transplants 69% did not survive (no MLN8237 order thallus remained) 14 years after transplantation ( Table 1). In 1996, 90% of remaining transplants

had survived on clearcuts and 88% in forests, compared to 44% and 17% in 2008, respectively. In 1996, 69% of the remaining transplants on clearcuts and 61% in forests were classified as being vital (⩾50% of a survived thallus in a viable condition), compared to 70% and 74%, respectively, in 2008. After 14 years (2008) 61% of all transplants on northern sides on clearcut trees had survived and 26% on southern sides of clearcut trees, while 16% had survived on northern sides and 17% on southern sides of forest trees (Fig. 1). The proportion of transplants assessed as vital was 76% on northern sides of clearcut trees and 57% on southern sides, and 76% on northern sides learn more of forest

trees and 72% on southern sides (Fig. 2). The results of the GLMM showed that survival was significantly higher on clearcuts and there especially on northern sides of aspen trees, compared to southern sides or in the forest (Fig. 1 and Table 2). Vitality of transplants in 2008 was significantly higher on northern sides compared to southern sides in all trees

(Fig. 2 and Table 2). Tree diameter improved the models for survival, but the variable was not significant in 2008. In 2008, 40% of transplants on trees in groups and 47% on scattered trees on clearcuts had survived after 14 years. Of these 74% and 68%, respectively, were classified as vital. Differences between types of retention trees were not significant, neither for survival nor vitality. In 2008, survival of autumn Phloretin transplants was 36%, which was significantly higher than for spring transplants, 27%. For vitality there was no significant difference between spring and autumn transplants, of which 75% and 68%, respectively, were assessed as vital (Table 3). Seventeen (85%) of the trees were still standing in 2008. The survival was in 2008 similar between fresh material (77% of transplants survived) and frozen (71%), and vitality of the survived transplants was also similar (77% were vital, for frozen as well as fresh material). The significantly higher survival in 2008 on northern sides of clearcut trees compared to southern sides or on forest trees was not seen in the 1996 data (Fig. 1 and Table 2 and Table 3). The overall higher transplant vitality on northern sides compared to southern sides in 2008 (Fig.

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