Where ventricular septation was not possible, definitive repair w

Where ventricular septation was not possible, definitive repair was considered to include pulmonary artery reconstruction and a right ventricle-pulmonary artery conduit or systemic shunt. Native pulmonary artery morphology was classified into confluent intrapericardial (n = 139), confluent intrapulmonary (n = 51), and nonconfluent intrapulmonary (n 26).

Results: A total of 203 patients (85%) had definitive repair at a median age of 2.0 years. There was no statistically significant difference check details in survival after complete repair among the 3 morphologic pulmonary artery groups (P = .18). A total of 132 patients (56%) had complete repair with ventricular septal

defect closure, as a single procedure in 111 patients see more and a staged procedure in 21 patients. Focalization of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries with proven long-term patency with the right ventricle was associated with a survival benefit compared with 14 patients in whom unifocalization was not possible and who had only systemic shunts. Overall survival was 89% at 3 years after definitive repair. During

follow-up, 190 patients required 196 catheter reinterventions and 60 surgical reinterventions.

Conclusion: By using a strategy of unifocalization, intrapericardial pulmonary artery reconstruction, and right ventricle-pulmonary artery conduit, excellent long-term survival can be achieved in this group of patients even in the absence of native intrapericardial pulmonary arteries. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2009; 138: 1269-75)”
“The current study tested the assumption that bilinguals with dementia regress to using primarily the dominant language. Spanish-English bilinguals with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n=29), and matched bilingual controls (n = 42) named Boston Naming Test pictures in their dominant and nondominant languages. Surprisingly, differences between patients and controls were larger using dominant-language

than nondominant-language naming scores, and bilinguals with AD were either more likely than controls (in English-dominant bilinguals), or equally likely (in Spanish-dominant bilinguals), to name some pictures in the nondominant Clomifene language that they could not produce in their dominant language. These findings suggest that dominant language testing may provide the best assessment of language deficits in bilingual AD, and argue against the common notion that the nondominant language is particularly susceptible to dementia. The greater vulnerability of the dominant language may reflect the increased probability of AD affecting richer semantic representations associated with dominant compared to nondominant language names. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Borderline left heart disease is characterized by left heart obstructive lesions (coarctation, aortic and mitral stenoses, left ventricular hypoplasia) and endocardial fibroelastosis.

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