Under dichoptic viewing conditions, contrast interference thresholds were determined with a global motion direction-discrimination task. Using virtual reality goggles, high contrast signal dots were presented
to the amblyopic eye, while low contrast noise dots were presented to the non-amblyopic fellow eye. The contrast of the noise dots was increased until discrimination of the motion direction of the signal dots reached chance performance. Contrast interference CHIR-99021 manufacturer thresholds were significantly lower in the strabismic group than in the anisometropic and control group. Our results suggest that interocular suppression is stronger in strabismic than in anisometropic amblyopia. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved protein present in all eukaryotic organisms. Various cellular functions and molecular interactions have been ascribed to this protein, many related to
its growth-promoting and antiapoptotic properties. TCTP levels are highly regulated in response to various cellular stimuli and stresses. We have shown recently that the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR, is involved in translational regulation of TCTP. Here we extend these studies by demonstrating that TCTP is downregulated in response to various proapoptotic treatments, in particular agents that induce Ca(+) (+) stress, in a PKR-dependent SCH 900776 manner. This AMPK inhibitor regulation requires phosphorylation of protein synthesis factor eIF2 alpha. Since TCTP has been characterized as an antiapoptotic and Ca(+ +)- binding protein, we asked whether it is involved in protecting cells from Ca(+) (+)- stress-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of TCTP partially protects cells against thapsigargin-induced apoptosis, as measured using caspase-3 activation assays,
a nuclear fragmentation assay, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and time-lapse video microscopy. TCTP also protects cells against the proapoptotic effects of tunicamycin and etoposide, but not against those of arsenite. Our results imply that cellular TCTP levels influence sensitivity to apoptosis and that PKR may exert its proapoptotic effects at least in part through downregulation of TCTP via eIF2 alpha phosphorylation. Oncogene (2010) 29, 763-773; doi: 10.1038/onc.2009.380; published online 9 November 2009″
“Improving response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remains challenging. Appropriate candidates may be identified by the presence of left ventricular (LV) conduction delay. An additional determinant may be the electrical effect elicited by LV pacing, which may vary among and within individuals. However, this is little explored, reflecting the lack of means for both easily altering lead position in any individual patient and of rapidly assessing its electrical effects.