The introduction of RV-A vaccination was followed by a reduction in child hospitalization due to all causes of AD in Brazil, El Salvador and Mexico ranging from 17 to 51% ,  and  and a reduction find more in mortality from AD in children under 5 years in Brazil of 22% and in Mexico of 41% . This study will evaluate the overall effectiveness of the oral monovalent vaccine, used in routine health services, in preventing Brazilian child hospitalization with RV-A AD. It will also evaluate
overall and genotype-specific VE by time since second dose vaccination (up to two years), and genotype-specific VE. This was a hospital based case–control study, frequency-matched by sex and age group. Hospitals were general hospitals which received children with
a large range of diseases coming from a similar geographical catchment area. Seventeen of the hospitals enrolled in the RV-A AD National Surveillance System were invited to participate in the study, based on having had a large number of RV-A positive samples in 2007, adequate level of organization of the unit and data accessibility. After consultation buy GW-572016 and agreement on logistical arrangements with the Federal Health Surveillance (SVS/MS), the epidemiological surveillance of the hospitals and of the states, the Central Public Health and National Reference Laboratories, 10 hospitals located in five macro-regions of Brazil (6 state capital cities and 4 municipalities) were selected. Children were eligible
to participate in the study if they were admitted in the study hospitals, were aged 4 to 24 months (and therefore old enough to have received their second dose of rotavirus vaccine) and did not have diarrhea up to three weeks before admission or during hospitalization. All eligible children were listed and screened to Modulators exclude children who had any health condition presumed to reduce vaccine effectiveness (immunodeficiency, gastrointestinal disease (e.g. diverticulitis), malformations or neoplasm conditions related to vaccine effectiveness, general signs and symptoms, infectious and parasitic diseases), those who had received the second dose of vaccine in the 15 days before hospitalization, or whose vaccination did not follow the BNIP schedule. All that about fulfilled the specific criteria for either effective’s case or control were included. This aimed to select controls from the population that produced the cases, as cases hospitalized by AD or by other diseases were likely to come from the same population given the universal health care system in Brazil. Inclusion criteria for potential cases were: admission with AD (defined as three or more liquid stools in 24 h, up to 14 days before admission), stool sample was collected until 48 h after admission and positive for RV-A and stay in hospital for at least 24 h. Children were included in the study in the first hospitalization only and had no associate disease.