More recent work in North America has reinforced this view by sho

More recent work in North America has reinforced this view by showing how valleys can contain ‘legacy sediments’ related to particular phases and forms of agricultural change (Walter and AZD5363 clinical trial Merritts, 2008). Similar work in North West Europe has shown that the relative reflection of climatic and human activity

depends upon several factors including geological inheritance, principally the hydrology and erodibility of bedrock, the size of the basin and the spatially varied nature of human activity (Houben, 2007). The geological impact of humans has also been proposed as a driver of societal failure (Montgomery, 2007a); however, the closer the inspection of such cases of erosion-induced collapse the more other, societal, factors are seen to have been

important if not critical (Butzer, 2012). Soil erosion has also been perceived as a problem from earliest times (Dotterweich, 2013). In this paper we review the interaction of humans and alluviation both from first principals, and spatially, present two contrasting Old World case studies and finally and discuss the implications for the identification of the Anthropocene and its status. The relationship between the natural and semi-natural (or pre-Anthropocene) climatic drivers of Earth surface erosion, and subsequent transport and human activity, is fundamentally multiplicative as conceptualised in Eq. (1) and (2). So in the absence of humans we can, at least theoretically, determine a climatic erosion or denudation rate. equation(1) Climate⋅geology⋅vegetation(land use)=erosionClimate⋅geology⋅vegetation(land use)=erosion This implies that the erosional potential of the climate (erosivity) is multiplied by the susceptibility of the geology including

soils to erosion (erobibility). Re-writing this equation it becomes equation(2) Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase Erosivity(R)⋅erodibility(K)⋅vegetation(landuse) (L)=erosion (E)Erosivity(R)⋅erodibility(K)⋅vegetation(landuse) (L)=erosion (E) Re-arranging this becomes equation(3) R L=EK And assuming that K is a constant we can see that the erosion rate is a result of the product of climate and vegetation cover. This relationship is contained not only in both statistical soil erosion measures such as the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), but also in more realistic models which are driven by topography, soil characteristics (such as infiltration rate) and biomass, and that can be used to estimate the effective storage capacity or runoff threshold (h) from Kirkby et al.

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