IWP-2 in vivo Figure 4 Overproduction of PpiD in surA skp cells stimulates synthesis and folding of OmpA. The SurA-depletion strains P Llac-O1 -surA (SB44454) and P Llac-O1 -surA Δskp (SB44452; Δskp) were grown at 37°C in LB buffered at pH 7.0 supplemented with 0.2% maltose ±of IPTG. Cells contained either pPpiD (+) Akt inhibitor or the empty vector pASK75 (-). The data shown are representative for a minimum of two independent experiments. (A) Total cellular levels of SurA and of OmpA in SurA-depletion strains grown for 240 min as described above. Extracts corresponding to 8 × 107 cells were loaded onto each lane and analyzed
by western blotting. Signal intensities were calculated using cytoplasmic Hsc66 as the internal standard for each lane and are shown relative to those in the SurA-depleted P Llac-O1 -surA strain (rel. Int.). (B) Levels of unfolded OmpA (u-OmpA) and folded OmpA (f-OmpA) species in SurA-depletion strains grown as described above. Culture samples corresponding to an equal number of cells were taken at the indicated time points and cell extracts prepared by gentle lysis. Samples of cell extracts corresponding
to 1.3 × 108 cells were loaded onto each lane and analyzed by western blotting. Relative signal intensities (rel. Int.) for u-OmpA (u) and f-OmpA (f) were calculated as in A. PpiD has in vitro chaperone activity The above findings suggest that suppression of the lethal surA skp phenotype by overproduction of selleck kinase inhibitor PpiD does not simply result from regulatory events in response to increased PpiD levels but rather from functional complementation of the surA skp caused deficiency. As the defects of the surA skp double mutant are thought to result from lack of periplasmic chaperone activity , we asked whether the PpiD and PpiDΔParv proteins provide such an activity by examining their capability to prevent aggregation of thermally denatured citrate synthase, a classic in vitro assay for chaperone function . SurA had previously been
shown to possesses this activity  and was used as a control. When citrate synthase was thermally denatured in the presence PAK5 of an 8-fold molar excess of SurA (based on citrate synthase monomer) aggregation was significantly reduced (Figure 5). Chymotrypsinogen A, which served as a negative control, showed no or only minor effects at this concentration. In contrast, an 8-fold excess of PpiD reduced aggregation of citrate synthase significantly, although less effectively than SurA, requiring 2-fold higher concentrations to have roughly the same effect. PpiDΔParv finally, which lacks the PPIase domain (Figure 2A), protected citrate synthase about 2-fold more effectively from aggregation than intact PpiD, being almost as effective as SurA.