Familiarity with the normal anatomy of the calcaneus,


Familiarity with the normal anatomy of the calcaneus,

the classification of calcaneal fractures, and the various complications of these fractures is essential for treatment assessment, especially if surgical intervention is required. (C)RSNA, 2011 . radiographics.rsna.org”
“In this article, the authors review developments in technology that can help patients, their loved ones, and healthcare providers engage in more effective advance care planning (ACP). The article begins with PLX3397 inhibitor a brief description of ACP and its purpose and then discusses various electronically available resources for ACP in the U.S. Finally the authors provide a critical assessment of the achievements, challenges, and future prospects for electronic advance care planning, or “e-planning.” Cite this article: Green, M. J., & Levi, B. H. (2012, DECEMBER). EPZ6438 The era of “e”: The use of new technologies in advance care planning. Nursing Outlook, 60(6), 376-383. http://dx.doi.org.huaryu.kl.oakland.edu/10.1016/j.outlook.2012.08.005.”
“Background The main goal of treatment in early-onset scoliosis is to obtain and maintain curve correction while simultaneously preserving spinal, trunk, and lung growth. This study

introduces a new surgical strategy, called the modified growing rod technique, which allows spinal growth and lung development while controlling the main deformity with apical and intermediate anchors without fusion. The use of intraoperative traction at the initial procedure enables spontaneous correction of the deformity and decreases the need for forceful correction maneuvers on the immature spine and prevents possible implant failures. This study seeks to evaluate (1) curve correction; (2) spinal length; (3) number EVP4593 of procedures performed; and

(4) complications with the new approach. Description of Technique In the initial procedure, polyaxial pedicle screws were placed with a muscle-sparing technique. Rods were placed in situ after achieving correction with intraoperative skull-femoral traction. The most proximal and most distal screws were fixed and the rest of the screws were left with nonlocked set screws to allow vertical growth. The lengthening reoperations were performed every 6 months. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, we treated 19 patients surgically for early-onset scoliosis. Of those, 16 (29%) were treated with the modified growing rod technique by the senior author (AH); an additional three patients were treated using another technique that was being studied at the time by one of the coauthors (CO); those three were not included in this study. The 16 children included nine girls and seven boys (median, 5.5 years of age; range, 4-9 years), and all had progressive scoliosis (median, 64 degrees; range, 38 degrees-92 degrees). All were available for followup at a minimum of 2 years (median, 4.5 years; range, 2-6 years).

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