(C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of and evaluate screening modalities for undiagnosed tuberculosis (TB) in antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligible adults in South Africa.

METHODS: Individuals were screened for TB using symptoms, chest radiograph (CXR) and two sputum specimens for

microscopy and culture, and were then followed for <6 months to determine TB diagnoses.

RESULTS: Among 361 participants (67% female, median age 38 years, median CD4 count 120 cells/mm(3)), 64 (18%) were sputum culture-positive; 114 (32%) fulfilled any Belinostat solubility dmso TB case definition (culture- and/or smear-positive, or improvement on specific treatment). Symptom screening comprising any of cough, appetite loss or night sweats > 2 weeks had a sensitivity and specificity of respectively 74.5% and 50.8%. Sensitivity this website was increased by CXR (to 96.1%), but not by smear microscopy. The World Health Organization symptom screen had a sensitivity and specificity of respectively 96.1% and 5.2% in our study population; the addition of CXR increased sensitivity to 100%. Median time to TB treatment was 8 days for diagnoses based on CXR (n = 72) vs. 37 days for diagnoses based only

on sputum culture (n = 14).

CONCLUSIONS: The very high prevalence of undiagnosed TB among patients presenting for ART mandates their routine investigation. CXR improved sensitivity substantially, allowed rapid treatment initiation and should be routine, where available, pending better point-of-care diagnostics.”
“Avian-lineage H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV)-associated respiratory disease, which can be fatal, emerged in South Korean dogs in 2007. We show here that dogs experimentally infected with CIV only developed respiratory tract diseases, as no extrapulmonary lesions and virus antigens were detected. This differs from the multiorgan diseases that avian influenza H5N1 induces in small experimental animals. However, the CIV-infected dogs developed a distinctively severe, CH5424802 datasheet long-persistent bronchointerstitial

pneumonia, which differs from the acute but short-term bronchopneumonia that human (H1N1 and H3N2) influenza cause in rodents and ferrets. Histopathology and in situ TUNEL assays revealed that the neutrophils infiltrating the lesions were undergoing apoptosis, which probably reflects the attempts by the body to maintain appropriate numbers of neutrophils for defense against secondary bacterial infections. Our observations suggest that neutrophils along with the related chemoattractant cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 and IL-8, etc.) may play a key role in the pathogenesis of H3N2 CIV in dogs. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: The paucity of effective anti-tuberculosis drugs often justifies rechallenge with first-line drugs following adverse drug reactions (ADR) to eliminate the offending drug from the regimen.

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