As temperature decreases from 296 K to 183 K (23 A degrees C to -90 A degrees C), the formation life for cracking about pit and EXCO corrosion perimeters increases, microstructure scale crack growth rates Nutlin-3 decrease in the range from 20 to 500 mu m beyond the corrosion topography,
and long crack growth rates similarly decline. Fatigue crack surface features correlate with reduced hydrogen embrittlement with decreasing temperature fed by localized H produced during precorrosion for pit and EXCO-proximate cracks, as well as by crack tip H produced by water vapor reaction during stressing for all crack sizes. The importance of the former H source increases with decreasing temperature for cracks sized below 200 mu m. Decreasing temperature to 223 K (-50 A degrees C) eliminates the contribution of environmental H through interaction of reduced water vapor pressure
in equilibrium with ice and reduced H diffusion. The Knudsen flow model and exposure parameter, , enables improved modeling of temperature dependent crack propagation, but does not fully describe low temperature fatigue behavior due to possible rate limitation by H diffusion. Further decreases in MSC da/dN to 183 K (-90 A degrees C) are related to reduced mobility of the corrosion-precharged H which GM6001 supplier may associate with vacancies from dissolution. Crack formation, and growth rates correlate with either elastic stress intensity range or cyclic crack tip opening displacement, and are available to predict corrosion effects on airframe fatigue for the important low temperature regime. DOI: 10.1007/s11661-012-1374-3 (C) The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012″
“Chemical cues constitute much of the language of life in the sea. Our understanding of biotic interactions and their effects on marine ecosystems will advance more rapidly if this language is studied
and understood. Here, I review how chemical cues regulate critical aspects of the behavior of marine organisms from bacteria to phytoplankton to benthic invertebrates and water column fishes. see more These chemically mediated interactions strongly affect population structure, community organization, and ecosystem function. Chemical cues determine foraging strategies, feeding choices, commensal associations, selection of mates and habitats, competitive interactions, and transfer of energy and nutrients within and among ecosystems. In numerous cases, the indirect effects of chemical signals on behavior have as much or more effect on community Structure and function as the direct effects of consumers and pathogens. Chemical cues are critical for understanding marine systems, but their omnipresence and impact are inadequately recognized.”
“We tested the hypothesis that trees have measurable effects on infiltrability, macroporosity, and preferential flows in agrosilvopastoral systems. Managing agricultural systems for water conservation is a critical component of sustainable systems.