After experiencing a particular transformation for one reach, subjects have insufficient information to determine the exact transformation, and so their second reach reflects a combination of their prior over visuomotor transformations and
the sensory evidence from the first reach. We developed a Bayesian observer model in order to infer the covariance structure of the subjects’ prior, which was found to give high probability to parameter settings consistent with visuomotor rotations. Therefore, although the set of visuomotor transformations AZD3965 experienced had little structure, the subjects had a strong tendency to interpret ambiguous sensory evidence as arising from rotation-like transformations. We then ISRIB exposed the same subjects to a highly-structured set of visuomotor transformations, designed to be very different from the set of visuomotor rotations. During this exposure the prior was found to have changed significantly to have a covariance structure that no longer favored rotation-like transformations. In summary, we have developed a technique which can estimate the full covariance structure of a prior in a sensorimotor task and have shown that the prior over
visuomotor transformations favor a rotation-like structure. Moreover, through experience of a novel task structure, participants can appropriately alter the covariance structure of their prior.”
“The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) is a measure of worry phenomena and has been demonstrated valid in cross-cultural populations. The present study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Chinese version of PSWQ (Ch-PSWQ) in a Chinese college sample (n=1243). Exploratory
factor analysis of the Ch-PSWQ revealed a two-factor solution (engagement of worry and absence of worry). Confirmatory factor analysis and model comparison supported that the model of P005091 one factor with method effect provided the best fit to the data. The Ch-PSWQ and its factors evidenced good internal consistency and both convergent and discriminate validity. The present study supports the opinion that the second factor of PSWQ not only contains the component of evaluating pathological worry, but also might represent other traits.”
“Aims: To analyse major sources of evidence-based information on the efficacy and gastrointestinal tolerability of aspirin, used short-term, in over-the-counter (OTC) doses, to relieve acute pain and cold symptoms, including associated feverishness.
Methods: Evidence was largely collected from published meta-analyses and systematic reviews that focused on randomised, controlled, double-blind clinical trials, in which aspirin was compared to placebo and, in some cases also, to active comparators such as OTC doses of paracetamol or ibuprofen.
Results: Across a large number of comparisons, aspirin was superior to placebo in treating pain, cold or fever. Efficacy was essentially similar to that of comparators used in equivalent doses.